The Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots has been used as a resource in the following articles. If you have used the corpus in your own research, please let us know using the feedback form.

See also:
A Selected Classified Bibliography of the Scots Language, compiled by Caroline Macafee and maintained by Marina Dossena,


Kahlas-Tarkka, Leena & Matti Kilpiö.2012. "'O Thou Sea of Love': Oxford and St. Petersburg manuscripts of Ann Bathurst's religious visions". Western European Manuscripts and Early Printed Books in Russia: Delving into the Collections of the Libraries of St. Petersburg, ed. by Kahlas-Tarkka, Leena & Matti Kilpiö. VARIENG eSeries volume 9


Nevalainen, Terttu, Irma Taavitsainen, Päivi Pahta. 2008. "Exploring the Dynamics of Linguistic Variation through Public and Private Corpora ". In The Dynamics of Linguistic Variation: Corpus Evidence on English Past and Present, ed. by Terttu Nevalainen, Irma Taavitsainen, Päivi Pahta & Minna Korhonen. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1–9.


Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 2007. "Relatives as sentence-level connectives". In Connectives in the History of English. (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 283), ed. by Ursula Lenker & Anneli Meurman-Solin. Amsterdam and Philadelpia: John Benjamins, 255-287.

Sorva, Elina. 2007. Grammaticalization and syntactic polyfunctionality: The case of albeit. In Ursula Lenker and Anneli Meurman-Solin (eds), Connectives in the History of English (Current Trends in Linguistic Theory, 283), 115-143. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.


Bugaj, Joanna. 2006. Analytic of the samyn or synthetic its? The use of neuter possessives in Older Scots texts. In Terttu Nevalainen, Juhani Klemola and Mikko Laitinen (eds.) Types of Variation. Diachronic, dialectal and typological interfaces (Studies in Language Companion Series, 76), 171-201. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Nevalainen, Terttu. 2006. "Corpora, Historical Sociolinguistics and the Transmission of Language Change". In Corpus Linguistics: Applications for the Study of English. (Linguistic Insights 25), ed. by Ana María Hornero, María José Luzón & Silvia Murillo. Bern & Berlin: Peter Lang, 23-37.

Nevalainen, Terttu. 2006. "Mapping Change in Tudor English". In The Oxford History of English, ed. by Lynda Mugglestone. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 178-211.

Sorva, Elina. 2006. The concessive connective albeit: A diachronic corpus-based study. In Terttu Nevalainen, Juhani Klemola and Mikko Laitinen (eds.) Types of Variation. Diachronic, dialectal and typological interfaces (Studies in Language Companion Series, 76), 121-148. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.


Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 2005. "Women's Scots: gender-based variation in Renaissance letters". In Older Scots literature, ed. by Sally Mapstone. Edinburgh: John Donald, 424-440.

Nevalainen, Terttu. 2005 [2006]. "The Transmission Problem and the Principle of Contingency in Real-time Language Change". Logos and Language IV (1): 13-29.


Meurman-Solin, Anneli and Arja Nurmi. 2004. "Circumstantial adverbials and stylistic literacy in the evolution of epistolary discourse". In Language Variation in Europe. Papers from ICLaVE 2, ed. by Britt-Louise Gunnarsson, Lena Bergström, Gerd Eklund, Staffan Fridell, Lise H. Hansen, Angela Karstadt, Bengt Nordberg, Eva Sundgren & Mats Thelander. Uppsala: Universitetstryckeriet, 302-314.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 2004. "Data and Methods in Scottish Historical Linguistics". In The History of English and the Dynamics of Power, ed. by Ermanno Barisone, Maria Luisa Maggioni & Paola Tornaghi. Alessandria: Edizioni dell'Orso, 25-42.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 2004. "From inventory to typology in English historical dialectology". In New Perspectives on English Historical Linguistics, Vol. I: Syntax and Morphology, ed. by Christian Kay, Simon Horobin & Jeremy Smith. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 125-151.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 2004. "Towards a Variationist Typology of Clausal Connectives. Methodological Considerations Based on the Corpus of Scottish Correspondence". In Methods and Data in English Historical Dialectology. (Linguistic Insights: Studies in Language and Communication 16.), ed. by Marina Dossena & Roger Lass. Bern: Peter Lang, 171-197.


Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 2003. "Corpus-based Study of Older Scots Grammar and Lexis". In The Edinburgh Companion to Scots, ed. by John Corbett, J. Derrick McClure & Jane Stuart-Smith. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 170-196.


Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 2002. "Simple and complex grammars: the case of temporal subordinators in the history of Scots". In Variation Past and Present. VARIENG Studies on English for Terttu Nevalainen. (Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki 61), ed. by Helena Raumolin-Brunberg, Minna Nevala, Arja Nurmi & Matti Rissanen. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique, 187-210.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 2002. "The progressive in early Scots". In English Historical Syntax and Morphology. Selected Papers from 11ICEHL, ed. by Teresa Fanego, María José López-Couso & Javier Pérez-Guerra. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 203-29.


Dossena, Marina. 2001. The cruel slauchtyr that vas cruelly exsecutit: Intensification and Adverbial Modality in the Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots – A Preliminary Overview. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, 102, 3, 287-302.

Dossena, Marina. 2001. "For the aduancement of the commoun weilth": Hypotheses in Scots scientific discourse of the 16th-17th centuries. A preliminary investigation. Scottish Language 20: 47-65.

Williamson, Keith. 2001. Spatio-temporal aspects of Older Scots texts. Scottish language 20: 1-19.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 2001. "Genre as a Variable in Sociohistorical Linguistics". European Journal of English Studies 5 (2): 241-56.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 2001. "Structured Text Corpora in the Study of Language Variation and Change". Literary and Linguistic Computing 16 (1): 5-27.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 2001. "Women as informants in the reconstruction of geographically and socioculturally conditioned language variation and change in the 16th and 17th century Scots". Scottish Language 20: 20-46.


Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 2000. "Change from above or from below? Mapping the loci of linguistic change in the history of Scottish English". In The Development of Standard English, 1300-1800: theories, descriptions, conflicts, ed. by Laura Wright. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 155-70.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 2000. "Geographical, socio-spatial and systemic distance in the spread of the relative who in Scots". In Generative Theory and Corpus Studies: A Dialogue from 10ICEHL, ed. by Ricardo Bermúdez-Otero, David Denison, Richard M. Hogg & C. B. McCully. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 417-38.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 2000. "On the conditioning of geographical and social distance in language variation and change in Renaissance Scots". In The History of English in a Social Context. A Contribution to Historical Sociolinguistics. (Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs 129), ed. by Dieter Kastovsky & Arthur Mettinger. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 227-55.

Nurmi, Arja. 2000. "The rise and fall of periphrastic DO in Early Modern English, or 'Howe the Scots will declare themselv's'". In Generative Theory and Corpus Studies: A Dialogue from 10 ICEHL. (Topics in English Linguistics 31), ed. by Ricardo Bermúdez-Otero, David Denison, Richard M. Hogg & C.B. McCully. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 373-394.


Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 1999. "Letters as a Source of Data for Reconstructing Early Spoken Scots". In Writing in Nonstandard English, ed. by Irma Taavitsainen, Gunnel Melchers & Päivi Pahta. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 305-22.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 1999. "Point of View in Scottish and English Genre Styles". In Odd Alliances. Scottish Studies in European contexts, ed. by Neil McMillan & Kirsten Stirling. Glasgow: Cruithne Press, 25-51.

Nurmi, Arja. 1999. A Social History of Periphrastic DO. (Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki 56). Helsinki: Société Néophilologique.


Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 1997. "A Corpus-Based Study on t/d deletion and insertion in Late Medieval and Renaissance Scottish English". In To Explain the Present. Studies in the Changing English Language in Honour of Matti Rissanen, ed. by Terttu Nevalainen & Leena Kahlas-Tarkka. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique, 111-24.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 1997. "On Differentiation and Standardization in Early Scots". In The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, ed. by Charles Jones. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 3-23.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 1997. "Text profiles in the study of language variation and change". In Tracing the trail of time. Proceedings from the Second Diachronic Corpora Workshop, ed. by Raymond Hickey, Merja Kytö, Ian Lancashire & Matti Rissanen. Amsterdam and Atlanta, GA: Rodopi, 199-214.


Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 1995. The Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots, 1450-1700 (Acts of Parliament, burgh records, trial proceedings, histories, biographies, travelogues, diaries, pamphlets, educational treatises, scientific treatises, handbooks, private letters, official letters, sermons and the Bible).

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 1995. "A New Tool: The Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots (1450-1700)". ICAME Journal 19: 49-62.


Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 1994. "On the Evolution of Prose Genres in Older Scots". Nowele 23: 91-138. Reprinted in Meurman-Solin 1993. Variation and change in early Scottish prose.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 1994. "The Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots". In Corpora across the centuries: proceedings of the first International Colloquium on English Diachronic Corpora, St Catharine's College Cambridge, 25-27 March 1993. (Language and computers. Studies in practical linguistics 11). Amsterdam: Rodopi, 53-63.


Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 1993. "Periphrastic and auxiliary do in early Scottish prose genres". In Early English in the computer age: explorations through the Helsinki Corpus. (Topics in English Linguistics 11), ed. by Matti Rissanen, Merja Kytö & Minna Palander-Collin. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 235-51.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 1993. "The author-addressee relationship and the marking of stance in the characterization of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century genre styles". Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire 71 (3): 733-745.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 1993. Variation and change in early Scottish prose. Studies based on the Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots. (Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae, Diss. Humanarum Litterarum, 65). Helsinki.


Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 1992. "On the morphology of verbs in Middle Scots: present and present perfect indicative". In History of Englishes. New Methods and Interpretations in Historical Linguistics, ed. by Matti Rissanen, Ossi Ihalainen, Terttu Nevalainen & Irma Taavitsainen. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 611-23.


Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 1989. The Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots. In J. Derrick McClure and Michael R.G. Spiller (eds.) Bryght Lanternis. Essays on the Language and Literature of Medieval and Renaissance Scotland, 451-458. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 1989. "Variation Analysis and Diachronic Studies of Lexical Borrowing". In Proceedings from the Fourth Nordic Conference for English Studies, Vol. 1, ed. by Graham Caie et al. Copenhagen: Department of English, University of Copenhagen, 87-98.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 1989. Variation and Variety in Middle Scots Reconsidered: A Test Study of the Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots. Studies in Scottish Literature, 26: 38-49.

Recent conference papers

Daleszynska, Agata Maria. 2008. Standardisation meets Anglicisation: Changes in the written language of Scotland in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 17th Sociolinguistics Symposium, Amsterdam 2008.

Kopaczyk, Joanna. 2002. Middle Scots burgh court records: the influence of the text type on its linguistic features. 4th International Conference on Middle English. Vienna 2002.

Moessner, Lilo. 2002. The development of the subjunctive in Middle English. 4th International Conference on Middle English. Vienna 2002.