Professor Heikki Summala
heikki.summala [at] helsinki.fi
Traffic Research Unit
Traffic Psychology Chair
Institute of Behavioural Sciences
P.O. Box 9
Siltavuorenpenger 1 A
FI-00014 University of Helsinki
Researchers currently (2015) associated with Traffic Research Unit
Traffic Research Unit
The Traffic Resarch Unit of the University of Helsinki was founded in 1971.
The Unit’s mission is to conduct high quality basic research in behavioural science, to provide research-based higher education, and to produce and disseminate research results conducive to the well-being of people on the move.
The object of our research is human behaviour in a natural hazardous activity, and the cognitive and neural mechanisms behind it.
The reseach methods used include quantitative measurements in the field with instrumented cars, laboratory experiments and simulations, psychological tests, accident analysis, and computational modeling of road-user behaviour and traffic cognition.
We study human behaviour across the entire life span, and at all levels of skill and learning, from novice to expert.
The research has applications in driver education, driver assessment and licensing, road and traffic design, vehicle design, legislation, and in the prevention of road fatalities.
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Recent articles from Traffic Research Unit
Itkonen, T., Pekkanen, J., Lappi O. (2015) Driver Gaze Behavior Is Different in Normal Curve Driving and when Looking at the Tangent Point PLoS ONE 10(8): e0135505. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0135505
Several steering models in the visual science literature attempt to capture the visual strategies in curve driving. Some of them are based on steering points on the future path (FP), others on tangent points (TP). It is, however, challenging to differentiate between the models’ predictions in real–world contexts. Analysis of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) parameters is one useful measure, as the different strategies predict measurably different OKN patterns. Here, we directly test this prediction by asking drivers to either a) “drive as they normally would” or b) to “look at the TP”. The design of the experiment is similar to a previous study by Kandil et al., but uses more sophisticated methods of eye–movement analysis. We find that the eye-movement patterns in the “normal” condition are indeed markedly different from the “tp” condition, and consistent with drivers looking at waypoints on the future path. This is the case for both overall fixation distribution, as well as the more informative fixation–by–fixation analysis of OKN. We find that the horizontal gaze speed during OKN corresponds well to the quantitative prediction of the future path models. The results also definitively rule out the alternative explanation that the OKN is produced by an involuntary reflex even while the driver is “trying” to look at the TP. The results are discussed in terms of the sequential organization of curve driving.
Mattsson, M., O'Brien, F., Lajunen, T., Summala, H. (2015). Measurement invariance of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire across samples of young drivers from Finland and Ireland. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 78, 186-200.doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2015.02.017
This article investigates the factor structure of the 27-item Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) in two samples of young drivers (18–25 years of age); one from Finland and the other from Ireland. We compare the two-, three-, and four-factor solutions using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and show that the four-factor model (with the latent variables rule violations, aggressive violations, slips and lapses) fits the data from the two countries best. Next, we compare the fit of this model across samples by the means of a measurement invariance analysis in the CFA framework. The analysis shows that the four-factor model fails to fit both samples equally well. This is mainly because the socially-oriented latent variables (rule violations and aggressive violations) are different in nature in the two samples. The cognitively-oriented latent variables (slips and lapses) are, however, similar across countries and the mean values of slips can be compared using latent variable models. However, the common practice of calculating sum scores to represent the four latent DBQ variables and comparing them across subgroups of respondents is unfounded, at least when comparing young respondents from Finland and Ireland.
Lehtonen, E., Havia, V., Kovanen, E., Leminen, M., Saure, E. (2015). Evaluating bicyclists’ risk perception using video clips: Comparison of frequent and infrequent city cyclists. doi: 10.1016/j.trf.2015.04.006
Hazard and risk perception has been studied extensively among car drivers, and their link to crash involvement is established. Bicyclists, in particular, are vulnerable road users. Better understanding of their risk and hazard perception could help to improve their traffic safety.
In this study, we investigated the risk perception of bicyclists in a city environment. Two groups of bicyclists were compared: 19 frequent and 19 infrequent bicyclists. Participants were shown video clips taken with a camera attached to the handlebar of a bicycle, and they were asked to continuously indicate with a slider how much caution the situation needed.
The frequent cyclists had more frequent rises in the caution estimate, which suggest that they anticipated or detected more hazards than infrequent cyclists. This is in line with the classical hazard perception results, which link the car driving experience to faster and more accurate hazard perception. The overall level or caution was not directly related to the rise event rate or bicycling frequency. Those cyclists who reported typically cycling faster than others showed elevated overall level of caution on sidewalks compared with others, but there was no difference on bike paths.
Lappi, O. (2014). Future path and tangent point models in the visual control of locomotion in curve driving. Journal of Vision 14 (12) doi: 10.1167/14.12.21
Studying human behavior in the natural context of everyday visual tasks—including locomotor tasks such as driving—can reveal visual strategies or even suggest underlying visual mechanisms. This paper reviews empirical and theoretical work in the past 20 years (1994–2014) on the visual control of steering a vehicle along a winding path—one of the most comprehensively studied forms of visually guided locomotion in humans. The focus is on on-road studies of visual behavior and what they can reveal about the visual strategies in curve driving. Theoretical models and results from simulator studies are discussed where they have direct relevance to the interpretation of on-road data. For the past 20 years, the point of departure in studies of curve driving has been tangent point orientation, and tangent point models (models based on tracking the tangent point) have become established as the default account of how vision is used in curve negotiation. More recent studies have questioned the generality of the tangent point hypothesis, however, arguing that in addition to (or instead of) the tangent point, drivers target visual reference points on their future path. Ecological validity of real-world studies often comes at the cost of methodological challenges that make the data difficult to interpret in terms of underlying mechanisms, and the limitations of existing data and the complementary roles of real-world and laboratory studies are discussed.
Summala, H., Rajalin, S., Radun, I. (2014). Risky driving and recorded driving offences - 24 years follow-up study. Accident Analysis and Prevention 73, 27-33, doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2014.08.008
Permanent individual differences in driver behavior and accident risk have long been under active debate. Cognitive and personality factors have correlated with risky driving indicators in cross-sectional studies, and prospective cohort studies are now increasingly revealing early antecedents of risky behavior and injury mortality in adult age, with connections to stable personality traits. However, long-term stability in driver behavior or accident involvement has not been documented in a general driver population.This study reports 24-year follow-up data from a study that compared the recorded offenses between 134 drivers stopped by the police because of sustained risky driving and 121 control drivers stopped at the same locations at the same time in 1987 (Rajalin, 1994. Accid. Anal. Prev., 26, 555–562). Data were compiled from national driver records and accident statistics for the same drivers again 24 years later, and their yearly mileage and speed behavior was requested in a mail survey. The results showed that the two groups of drivers sampled on one trip a quarter of a century ago still differ from each other. The offenders still have more entries in their driver record, also when adjusted for age and mileage (OR = 1.59, CI = 1.03–2.46), they still report in the survey that they drive faster and overtake other cars more often. The results show that individual differences in driver behavior persist for decades, perhaps for life. However, in this on-road sample, the effect seems to be moderated by occupation which also presumably explains the lower mortality among the offenders during this 24-year follow-up.
Lehtonen, E., Lappi, O., Koirikivi, I., Summala, H. (2014). Effect of driving experience on anticipatory look-ahead fixations in real curve driving . Accident Analysis and Prevention 70, 195-208, doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2014.04.002
Anticipatory skills are a potential factor for novice drivers’ curve accidents. Behavioural data show that steering and speed regulation are affected by forward planning of the trajectory. When approaching a curve, the relevant visual information for online steering control and for planning is located at different eccentricities, creating a need to disengage the gaze from the guidance of steering to anticipatory look-ahead fixations over curves. With experience, peripheral vision can be increasingly used in the visual guidance of steering. This could leave experienced drivers more gaze time to invest on look-ahead fixations over curves, facilitating the trajectory planning.
Eighteen drivers (nine novices, nine experienced) drove an instrumented vehicle on a rural road four times in both directions. Their eye movements were analyzed in six curves. The trajectory of the car was modelled and divided to approach, entry and exit phases.
Experienced drivers spent less time on the road-ahead and more time on the look-ahead fixations over the curves. Look-ahead fixations were also more common in the approach than in the entry phase of the curve. The results suggest that with experience drivers allocate greater part of their visual attention to trajectory planning.
Mattsson, M. (2013). On testing factorial invariance: A reply to J.C.F. de Winter. Accident Analysis and Prevention, doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2013.10.031
Since its publication, the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) has been used for comparing subgroups of respondents on the constructs formed through factor analyzing the questionnaire items. However, not enough attention has been paid to ascertaining that the instrument actually measures the same constructs in the same way in all respondent groups. I recently published an article (Mattsson, 2012) that aimed to do this for the Finnish 28-item version of the DBQ using the stage-wise factorial invariance approach in the Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) context. de Winter (2013) commented on the publication, arguing that the results were artifacts due to measurement error that too many factors were extracted and that too strict criteria for invariance were applied. In this contribution, I reply to each criticism and suggest methodological approaches for ensuring the measurement invariance of self-report instruments such as the DBQ.
Lappi, O., Lehtonen, E., Pekkanen, J., Itkonen, T. (2013).Beyond the tangent point: Gaze targets in naturalistic driving. Journal of Vision 13 (13) doi: 10.1167/13.13.11
Moving in natural environments is guided by looking where you are going. When entering a bend, car drivers direct their gaze toward the inside of the curve, in the region of the curve apex. This behavior has been analyzed in terms of both “tangent point models,” which posit that drivers are looking at the tangent point (TP), and “future path models,” which posit that drivers are visually targeting a point on the desired trajectory or future path (FP). This issue remains unresolved, partly due to the challenge of representing the changing visual projection of the trajectory into the driver's field of view. This paper reports a study of naturalistic driving, in which the FP in the field of view is explicitly modeled, and the TP and reference points on the FP are simultaneously analyzed as potential gaze targets. We argue that traditional area-of-interest methods commonly interpreted as supporting the TP hypothesis are problematic when the interest is contrasting multiple gaze targets. This prompts a critical reassessment of the empirical case for the ubiquity of looking at the TP and the generality of the TP hypothesis as an account of where people look when they steer. As a basis for representing driver gaze behavior, the FP is an equally valid point of departure. There are no overwhelming theoretical or empirical reasons for favoring the TP models over the FP models.
Cengiz, C., Kotkanen, H., Puolakka, M. Lappi, L., Lehtonen, L., Halonen, L., Summala, H. Combined eye-tracking and luminance measurements while driving on a rural road: Towards determining mesopic adaptation luminance (2014) Lighting Research and Technology doi:10.1177/1477153513503361
In collaboration with Aalto University Lighting Unit
In order to implement the recommended Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) system for mesopic photometry to roads, it is necessary to define the relevant visual field and adaptation luminance in night-time driving conditions. We measured three drivers’ eye tracking on a rural road at night and in daytime, and the simultaneous luminance for the corresponding parts of the scene on lit and unlit sections of the road at night. Fields of view with circular sizes of 1°, 5°, 10°, 15° and 20°, with the centre point at the mode of the gaze distributions of the drivers, were used as initial estimates of the visual adaptation field. In both the lit and unlit sections, the variation within subject and between subjects in the mean luminance decreased as the size of the circular field increased. However, the mean luminances of all of the circular fields in the unlit section were higher than in the lit section due to the use of high-beam headlights in the unlit section.
Lappi O, Pekkanen J, Itkonen TH (2013) Pursuit Eye-Movements in Curve Driving Differentiate between Future Path and Tangent Point Models. PLoS ONE 8(7): e68326. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068326
For nearly 20 years, looking at the tangent point on the road edge has been prominent in models of visual orientation in curve driving. It is the most common interpretation of the commonly observed pattern of car drivers looking through a bend, or at the apex of the curve. Indeed, in the visual science literature, visual orientation towards the inside of a bend has become known as “tangent point orientation”. Yet, it remains to be empirically established whether it is the tangent point the drivers are looking at, or whether some other reference point on the road surface, or several reference points, are being targeted in addition to, or instead of, the tangent point. Recently discovered optokinetic pursuit eye-movements during curve driving can provide complementary evidence over and above traditional gaze-position measures. This paper presents the first detailed quantitative analysis of pursuit eye movements elicited by curvilinear optic flow in real driving. The data implicates the far zone beyond the tangent point as an important gaze target area during steady-state cornering. This is in line with the future path steering models, but difficult to reconcile with any pure tangent point steering model. We conclude that the tangent point steering models do not provide a general explanation of eye movement and steering during a curve driving sequence and cannot be considered uncritically as the default interpretation when the gaze position distribution is observed to be situated in the region of the curve apex.
Lappi, O. & Lehtonen, E., (2013) Eye-movements in real curve driving: pursuit-like optokinesis in vehicle frame of reference, stability in an allocentric reference coordinate system. Journal of Eye Movement Research 6(1):4, 1-13.http://www.jemr.org/online/6/1/4
Looking at the future path and/or the tangent point (TP) have been identified as car drivers’ gaze targets in many studies on curve driving. Yet little is known in detail about these "fixations to the road". We quantitatively analyse gaze behavior at the level of individual fixations in real on-road data. We find that while gaze tracks the TP area, this pattern consists of fast optokinetic movements (smooth pursuit and fast resetting saccadic movements). Gaze is not “fixed” to the TP. We also relate eye-movements to a reference direction fixed to a point on the trajectory of the vehicle (curve exit), showing that fixations lose their pursuit-like character in this rotating system. The findings are discussed in terms of steering models and neural levels of oculomotor control.
Lehtonen, E., Lappi, O. Kotkanen, H., & Summala, H. (2013) Look-ahead fixations in curve driving. Ergonomics, 56(1), doi:10.1080/00140139.2012.739205
Two functionally distinct types of fixation, guiding fixations and look-ahead fixations, have been identified in naturalistic tasks based on their temporal relationship to the task execution. In car driving, steering through a curve is guided by fixations toward a region located 1–2 s in the future, but drivers also make fixations further along the road. We recorded drivers' eye movements while they drove an instrumented vehicle on curved rural roads and developed a method to quantify lead time and distance of look-ahead fixations. We also investigated the effect of cognitive load on look-ahead fixations. The look-ahead fixations appear to have a pattern which is connected to the sequential structure of a curve. This suggests that they have a role both in advance planning of the driving line and in the anticipation of oncoming vehicles. Cognitive load led to a shorter look-ahead lead time and distance.
Lehtonen, E., Lappi, O. & Summala, H. (2012). Anticipatory eye movements when approaching a curve on a rural road depend on working memory load. Transportation Research Part F 15(3), doi:10.1016/j.trf.2011.08.007
Where do drivers look when approaching curves on a winding road? Existing models on visual processes in curve driving have focused on path-controlling behavior. Another aspect in curve driving is the visual anticipation of potential oncoming vehicles, obstacles and road alignment. We define the occlusion point of a curve as the nearest point where the view of the road is blocked by some obstacle (e.g. vegetation). Monitoring the occlusion point is relevant for safe driving because potential oncoming vehicles or obstacles on the road will come into view on the occlusion point.
In the current on-road study, 10 participants drove an instrumented car at their own pace on a low standard rural road while their eye-movements were recorded. We investigated anticipatory glances towards the occlusion point while approaching open sight curves and how anticipatory glances are affected by a cognitive secondary task without explicit visuo-spatial or motor components.
The results demonstrate that drivers indeed look at the occlusion point while approaching open curves on rural roads, and that working memory load leads to a significant decrease in visual anticipation. Previously, it has been shown that cognitive secondary tasks lead to reduction of looking at the speedometer and mirrors and of safety critical visual scanning at street crossings. We show that the effect is also present in the anticipation of road curvature and hazards on rural roads.
Mattsson, M. (2012). Investigating the factorial invariance of the 28-item DBQ across genders and age groups: An Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Study. Accid. Anal. Prev., doi:10.1016/j.aap.2012.02.009
The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) is perhaps the most widely used questionnaire instrument in traffic psychology with 174 studies published by late 2010. The instrument was developed based on a plausible cognitive ergonomic theory (the Generic Error Modeling System, GEMS), but the factor structure obtained in the original study (Reason et al., 1990) did not mirror the theory's conceptual structure. This led to abandoning GEMS and adopting the obtained factor structure as a starting point for further DBQ research. This article argues that (1) certain choices in the original study, concerning statistical methodology and the wording of individual question items, may have contributed to the ways the obtained factor structure deviated from the underlying theory and (2) the analysis methods often used in DBQ studies, principal components (PC) analysis and maximum likelihood (ML) factor analysis, are not optimal choices for the non-normally distributed categorical data that is obtained using the instrument. This is because ML produces biased results when used with this type of data, while PC is by definition unable to uncover latent factors as it summarizes all variation in the measured variables. (3) Even though DBQ factor scores have been routinely compared in subgroups of men and women and respondents of different ages, DBQ's factorial invariance in these groups has not been rigorously tested. These concerns are addressed in this article by framing the results of certain previous DBQ studies as a structural equation model (SEM) and an Exploratory Structural Equation Model (ESEM) and testing measurement model fit in subgroups of respondents. The SEM analyses indicate that the model does not fit data from the whole sample of respondents as it stands, while the ESEM analyses show that a modification of the model does. However, the ESEM analyses indicate the DBQ measures different underlying latent variables in the different subgroups. Based on the analyses and a review of recent advances in attention and memory research, an update to the theory underlying the DBQ is suggested.