Appendix A. Mapping of CT indicators to Garrison's stages of critical thinking.

Garrison's stages (+ deep, - surface)
0.50.5R+ relevant statements
0.50.5R- irrelevant statements, diversions
0.50.5I+ Important points/issues
0.50.5I- unimportant, trivial points/issues
1NP+ new problem related information
1NP- repeating what has been said
1NI+ New ideas for discussion
1NI- False or trivial leads
1NS+ new solutions to problems
1NS- Accepting first offered solution
1NQ+ Welcoming new ideas
1NQ- Squashing, putting down new ideas
1NL+ Student (learner) brings new things in
1NL- dragged in by tutor
1AC+ Clear unambiguous statements
1AC- Confused statements
1A+ Discuss ambiguities to clear them up
1A- Continue to ignore ambiguities
1OE+ Drawing on personal experience
1OC+ Refer to course material
1OM+ Use relevant outside material
1OK+ Evidence of using previous knowledge
1OP+ course related problems brought in
0.50.5OQ+ Welcoming outside knowledge
0.50.5OQ- Squashing attempts to bring in outside knowledge
0.50.5O- Sticking to prejudice or assumptions
1L+ linking facts, ideas and notions
1L+ Generating new data from information collected
1L- Repeating information without making inferences or offering an interpretation
1L- Stating that one shares the ideas or opinions stated, without taking these further or adding any personal comments
1JP+ Providing proof or examples
1JP- Irrelevant or obscuring questions or examples
1JS+ Justifying solutions or judgements
1JS+ Setting out advantages and disadvantages of situation or solution
1JS- Offering judgements or solutions without explanations or justification
1JS- Offering several solutions without suggesting which is the most appropriate
1C+ Critical assessment/evaluation of own or others contributions
1C- Uncritical acceptance or unreasoned rejection
1CT+ Tutor prompts for critical evaluation
1CT- Tutor uncritically accepts
1P+ relate possible solutions to familiar situations
1P+ discuss practical utility of new ideas
1P- discuss in a vacuum
1P- suggest impractical solutions
0.50.5W+ Widen discussion
0.50.5W- Narrow discussion.