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Selected publications based on NOW


• Zliobaite, I., Puolamäki, K., Eronen, J. and Fortelius, M. 2017. A survey of computational methods for fossil data analysis. Evolutionary Ecology Research 18. PDF

• Sukselainen, L. K., Kaakinen, A., Eronen, J. T., Passey, B. H., Harrison, T., Zhaoqun, Z. and Fortelius, M. 2017. The palaeoenvironment of the middle Miocene pliopithecid locality in Damiao, Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of Human Evolution 108: 31-46. DOI


• Fortelius, H. L. M., Zliobaite, I., Kaya, F., Bibi, F., Bobe, R., Leakey, L., Leakey, M., Patterson, D., Rannikko, J. C. and Werdelin, L. 2016. An ecometric analysis of the fossil mammal record of the Turkana Basin. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Biological Sciences 371(1698). DOI

• Mirzaie Ataabadi, M., Kaakinen, A. P., Kunimatsu, Y., Nakaya, H., Orak, Z., Paknia, M., Sakai, T., Salminen, M. J., Sawada, Y., Sen, S., Suwa, G., Watabe, M., Zaree, G., Zhaoqun, Z. and Fortelius, H. L. M. 2016. The late Miocene hominoid-bearing site in the Maragheh Formation, Northwest Iran. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 96(3): 349-371. DOI

• Salonen, J. S., Saarinen, J. J., Miettinen, A. I., Hirvas, H., Usoltseva, M., Fortelius, H. L. M. and Sorsa, M. 2016. The northernmost discovery of a Miocene proboscidean bone in Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 454: 202-211. DOI

• Kaya, F., Kaymakci, N., Bibi, F., Eronen, J. T., Pehlevan, C., Erkman, A., Langereis, C. and Fortelius, M. 2016. Magnetostratigraphy and paleoecology of the hominid-bearing locality Çorakyerler, Tuglu Formation (Çankiri Basin, Central Anatolia). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 36(2). DOI


• Fortelius, H. L. M., Geritz, S. A. H., Gyllenberg, M. A. G., Raia, P. and Toivonen, J. T. 2015. Modeling the Population-Level Processes of Biodiversity Gain and Loss at Geological Timescales. American Naturalist 186(6): 742-754. DOI

• Arppe, L., Kaakinen, A., Passey, B., Zhang, Z. and Fortelius, M. 2015. Small mammal tooth enamel carbon isotope record of C4 grasses in late Neogene China. 133: 288-297. DOI

• Sukselainen, L., Fortelius, M. & Harrison, T. 2015. Co-occurrence of pliopithecoid and hominoid primates in the fossil record: An ecometric analysis. Journal of Human Evolution. 84: 25-41. DOI


• Fortelius, M., Eronen, J.T., Kaya, F., Tang, H., Raia, P., Puolamäki, K. 2014. Evolution of Neogene mammals in Eurasia: environmental forcing and biotic interactions. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science 42: 579–604, doi: 10.1146/annurev-earth-050212-124030.

• Eronen, J.T., Kaakinen, A., Liu, L., Passey, B.H., Tang, H., Zhang, Z. 2014. Here be Dragons: Mesowear of the classic Chinese "Hipparion" faunas from Baode, Shanxi Province, China. Annales Zoologici Fennici 51: 227-244. [PDF]

• Bingham, E. and Mannila, H. 2014. Towards Computational Techniques for Identifying Candidate Chronofaunas. Annales Zoologici Fennici 51: 43-48.

• Saarinen, J.J., Boyer, A.G., Brown, J.H, Costa, D.P., Ernest, S.K.M., Evans, A.R., Fortelius, M., Gittleman, J.L., Hamilton, M.J., Harding, L.E., Lintulaakso, K., Lyons, S.K., Okie, J.G., Sibly, R.M., Stephens, P.R., Theodor, J., Uhen, M.D., Smith, F.A. 2014. Patterns of maximum body size evolution in Cenozoic land mammals: eco-evolutionary processes and abiotic forcing. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.2049. [PDF]

• Liow, L.H. and Finarelli, J.A. 2014. A dynamic global equilibrium in carnivoran diversification over 20 million years. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281: 20132312.

• Martin-Serra, A., Figueirido, B., Palmqvist, P. 2014. A Three-Dimensional Analysis of Morphological Evolution and Locomotor Performance of the Carnivoran Forelimb. PLoS ONE 9(1): e85574. [PDF]

• Wu, S., Zhang, F., Edwards, S. V., Wu, W., Ye, J., Bi, S., Ni, X., Quan, C., Meng, J., Organ, C. L. 2014. The evolution of bipedalism in jerboas (Rodentioa: Dipopoidea): Origin in humid and forested environments. Evolution 68(7): 2108-2118.


• Raia, P. and Fortelius, M. 2013. Cope’s Law of the Unspecialized, Cope’s Rule, and weak directionality in evolution. Evolutionary Ecology Research 15: 747–756. [PDF]

• Mirzaie Ataabadi, M., Liu, L., Eronen, J. T., Bernor, R., Fortelius, M. 2013. Continental Scale Patterns in Neogene Mammal Community Evolution and Biogeography: A Europe-Asia Perspective. Pp. 629-655 in Wang, X., Flynn, L.J. and Fortelius, M. (Eds), Fossil Mammals of Asia. New York: Columbia University Press.

• Kaakinen, A. P., Passey, B. H., Zhang, Z., Pesonen, L., Liu, L., Fortelius, M. 2013. Stratigraphy and paleoecology of the classical dragon bone localities of Baode County, Shanxi Province, China. Pp. 203-217 in Wang, X., Flynn, L.J. and Fortelius, M. (Eds), Fossil Mammals of Asia. New York, Columbia University Press.

• Zhang, Z., Kaakinen, A. P., Liu, L., Lunkka, J.P., Sen, S., Gose, W.A., Qiu, Z. Zheng, S., Fortelius, M. 2013. Mammalian biochronology of the Late Miocene Bahe Formation. Pp. 187-202 in Wang, X., Flynn, L.J. and Fortelius, M. (Eds), Fossil Mammals of Asia. New York, Columbia University Press.

• Okie, J.G., Boyer, A.G., Brown, J.H., Costa, D.P., Ernest, S.K.M., Evans, A.R., Fortelius, M., Gittleman, J.L., Hamilton, M.J., Harding, L.E., Lintulaakso, K., Lyons, S.K., Saarinen, J.J., Smith, F.A., Stephens, P.R., Theodor, J., Uhen, M.D., Sibly, R.M. 2013. Effects of allometry, productivity and lifestyle on rates and limits of body size evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280: 20131007 (online June 13). [PDF]

• Uhen, M. D., Barnosky, A. D., Bills, B., Blois, J., Carrano, M. T., Carrasco, M. A., Erickson, G. M., Eronen, J. T., Fortelius, M., Graham, R. W., Grimm, E. C., O'Leary, M. A., Mast, A., Piel, W. H., Polly, P. D., Säilä, L. K. 2013. From card catalogs to computers: Databases in vertebrate paleontology. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33:13-28. [PDF]

• Tang, H., Eronen, J.T., Micheels, A., Ahrens, B. 2013. Strong interannual variation of the Asian summer monsoon in the Late Miocene. Climate Dynamics 41: 135-153

• Wagner, P.J. and Marcot, J.D. 2013. Modelling distributions of fossil sampling rates over time, space and taxa: assessment and implications for macroevolutionary studies. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 4(8): 703-713.


• Evans, A.R., Jones, D., Boyer, A.G., Brown, J.H., Costa, D.P., Dayan, T., Ernest, S.K.M., Fitzgerald, E.M.G. Fortelius, M. Gittleman, J.L. Hamilton, M.J., Harding, L.E., Lintulaakso, K., Lyons, S.K., Okie, J.G., Saarinen, J.J., Sibly, R.M., Smith, F.A., Stephens, P.R., Theodor, J., Uhen, M.D. 2012. Maximum rates of body size macroevolution in mammals. PNAS 109: 4187-4190. [PDF]

• Bradshaw, C.D., Lunt, D.J., Flecker, R., Salzmann, U., Pound, M.J., Haywood, A.M., Eronen, J.T. 2012. The relative roles of CO2 and palaeogeography in determining late Miocene climate: results from a terrestrial model-data comparison. Climate of the Past 8: 1257-1285, doi:10.5194/cp-8-1257-2012

• Eronen, J.T., Fortelius, M., Micheels, A., Portmann, F.T., Puolamäki, K., Janis, C.M. 2012. Neogene Aridification of the Northern Hemisphere. Geology 40: 823-826.

• Eronen, J.T., Micheels, A., Utescher, T. 2012. Comparison of estimates for Mean Annual Precipitation from different proxies. A Pilot Study for European Neogene. Evolutionary Ecology Research 13: 851-867. [PDF]

• Liu, L., Puolamäki, K., Eronen, J.T., Mirzaie, M., Hernesniemi, E., Fortelius, M. 2012. Estimating Net Primary Productivity from Dental Traits. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 27: 2793-2799,

• Raia P., Carotenuto F., Passaro F., Fulgione D., Fortelius, M. 2012. Ecological specialization in fossil mammals explains Cope's rule. American Naturalist 179: 328-337. [PDF]

• Raia P., Passaro F., Carotenuto F. 2012. Habitat tracking, stasis and survival in Neogene large mammals. Biology Letters 8: 64-66.


• Deng, T., X. Wang, M. Fortelius, Q. Li, Y. Wang, Z.J. Tseng, G.T. Takeuchi, J. E. Saylor, L.K. Säilä, G. Xie. 2011. Out of Tibet: Pliocene woolly rhino suggests high-plateau origin of Ice Age megaherbivores. Science 333: 1285-1288. [PDF]

• Eronen, J. T., Evans, A. R., Fortelius, M., Jernvall, J. 2011. Genera are often better than species for detecting evolutionary change in the fossil record: A reply to Salesa et al. Evolution 65: 1514-1516.

• Raia, P., Carotenuto, F., Eronen, J.T., Fortelius, M. 2011. Longer in the tooth, shorter in the record? The evolutionary correlates of hypsodonty in Neogene ruminants. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 278, 3474-3481. [PDF]

• Tang, H., Micheels, A., Eronen, J.T., Fortelius, M. 2011. A regional climate model experiment to investigate the Asian monsoon in the Late Miocene. Climate of the Past 7: 847-868. [PDF]

• Micheels, A., Bruch, A.A., Eronen, J.T. , Fortelius, M., Harzhauser, M., Utescher, T. Mosbrugger, V. 2011. Analysis of heat transport mechanisms from a Late Miocene model experiment with a fully-coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Palaeoclimatology, Palaeogeography, Palaeoecology 304: 337-350. [PDF]

• Polly, P.D., Eronen, J.T., Fred, M., Dietl, G., Mosbrugger, V., Scheidegger, C., Frank, D., Damuth, J., Stenseth, N.-C., Fortelius, M. 2011. History Matters: Integrative Climate Change Biology. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278: 1131-1140. [PDF]


• Eronen, J. T., Polly, P.D., Fred, M., Damuth, J., Frank, D. C., Mosbrugger, V., Scheidegger, C., Stenseth, N. C., Fortelius, M. 2010. Ecometrics: The traits that bind the past and present together.Integrative Zoology 5: 88-101. [PDF]

• Eronen, J. T., Puolamäki, K., Liu, L., Lintulaakso, K., Damuth, J., Janis, C., Fortelius, M. 2010. Precipitation and large herbivorous mammals , part II: Application to fossil data. Evolutionary Ecology Research 12: 235-248. [PDF]

• Eronen, J. T., Puolamäki, K., Liu, L., Lintulaakso, K., Damuth, J., Janis, C., Fortelius, M. 2010. Precipitation and large herbivorous mammals , part I: Estimates from present-day communities. Evolutionary Ecology Research 12: 217-233. [PDF]

• Eronen, J. T. , Evans, A.R., Jernvall, J., Fortelius, M. 2010. The impact of regional climate on the evolution of mammals. A case study using fossil horses. Evolution 64: 398-408. [PDF]

• Saarinen, J., Oikarinen, E., Fortelius, M. and Mannila H. 2010. The living and the fossilised – how well do unevenly distributed points capture the faunal information in a grid? Evolutionary Ecology Research 12: 363-376.[PDF]

• Solounias, N., Rivals, F., and Semprebon, G.M. 2010. Dietary interpretation and paleoecology of herbivores from Pikermi and Samos (late Miocene of Greece). Paleobiology 3: 113-136.

• Casanovas-Vilar, I., Garcia-Paredes, I., Alba, D.M., Van den Hoek Ostende, L.W., Moya-Sola, S. 2010. The European Far West: Miocene mammal isolation, diversity and turnover in the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Biogeography 37: 1079-1093.

• Furio, M., Casanovas-Vilar, I., Van den Hoek Ostende, L.W. 2010. Predictable structure of Miocene insectivore (Lipotyphla) faunas in Western Europe along a latitudinal gradient. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 304: 219-229. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.01.039


• Liu L., Eronen J. T., and Fortelius M. 2009. Significant Mid-Latitude Aridity in the Middle Miocene of East Asia. Palaeoclimatology, Palaeogeography, Palaeoecology 279: 201-206. [PDF]

• Eronen J. T., Mirzaie Ataabadi M., Micheels A., Karme A., Bernor R. L., and Fortelius M. 2009. Distribution history and climatic controls of the Late Miocene Pikermian chronofauna. PNAS 106(29): 11867-11871. [PDF]

• Micheels, A., Eronen, J.T., and Mosbrugger, V. 2009. The Late Miocene climate sensitivity on a modern Sahara desert. Global and Planetary Change 67: 193-204. [PDF]

• Bernor, R.L., Rook L., and Haile-Selassie Y. 2009. Paleobiogeography. In: (eds.) Haile-Selassie Y. and Wolde Gabriel G. Ardipithecus kadabba: Late Miocene Evidence from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. University of California Press, Los Angeles, pp. 549-563.

• Koufos, G.D., Kostopoulos, D.S., and Merceron G. 2009. Palaeoecology and Palaeobiogeography. In: (eds.) Koufos G.D. and Nagel D. The Late Miocene Mammal Faunas of the Mytilinii Basin, Samos Island, Greece: New Collection. Beiträge zur Paläontologie 31: 409-428.

• Nargolwalla, M.C. 2009. Eurasian Middle and Late Miocene Hominoid Paleobiogeography and the Geographic Origins of the Homininae. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto.


• Liow, L.H., Fortelius M., Bingham E., Lintulaakso K., Mannila H., Flynn L. and Stenseth N. C. 2008. Higher originaltion and extinction ratesin larger mammals. PNAS 105 (16): 6097-6102. [PDF]

• Liow L.H., Fortelius M., Bingham E., Lintulaakso K. , Mannila H., Flynn L. and Stenseth N. C. 2008. Sleep or hide, better for survival anytime (reply to Casanovas-Vilar et al.). PNAS 105 (35): E57. [PDF]

• Bernor, R.L. and L. Rook. 2008. A Current View of As-Sahabi Large Mammal Biogeographic Relationships, Garyounis Scientific Bulletin, Special Issue 5: 285-292.


• Bingham E., Kabán A., and Fortelius M. 2007. The aspect Bernoulli model: multiple causes of presences and absences. Pattern Analysis & Applications 12: 55-78 DOI:10.1007/s10044-007-0096-4. [PDF]

• Hopkins SSB. 2007. Causes of lineage decline in the Aplodontidae:  Testing for the influence of physical and biological change.  Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 246: 331-335.


• Eronen J. T. 2006. Eurasian Neogene large herbivorous mammals and climate. Acta Zoologica Fennica 216: 1-72.

• Fortelius M, Eronen J. T., Liu L, Pushkina D, Tesakov A, Vislobokova IA, and Zhang Z. 2006. Late Miocene and Pliocene large land mammals and climatic changes in Eurasia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 238: 219-227. [PDF]

• Fortelius M, Gionis A, Jernvall J, and Mannila H. 2006. Spectral ordering and biochronology of European fossil mammals. Paleobiology 32(2): 206-214. [PDF]

• Fortelius M, and Zhang Z. 2006. An Oasis in the Desert? History of Endemism and Climate in the Late Neogene of North China. Palaeontographica A. 277: 131-141. [PDF]

• Puolamäki K, Fortelius M, and Mannila H. 2006. Seriation in paleontological data using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. PLoS Computational Biology 2(2): e6. [PDF]

• Koufos GD. 2006. Palaeoecology and chronology of the Vallesian (late Miocene) in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Palaeoclimatology, Palaeogeography, Palaeoecology. 234: 127-145.


• Ukkonen A, Fortelius M, and Mannila H. 2005. Finding partial orders from unordered 0–1 data. In: Grossman R, Bayardo R and Bennett KP. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eleventh ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, Chicago, Illinois, USA, August 21–24, 2005. pp. 285-293. [PDF]


• Eronen J. T., and Rook L. 2004. The Mio-Pliocene European primate fossil record: dynamics and habitat tracking. Journal of Human Evolution 47(5): 323-341. [PDF]

• Jernvall J, and Fortelius M. 2004. Maintenance of trophic structure in fossil mammal communities: site occupancy and taxon resilience. American Naturalist 164(5): 614-624. [PDF]


• Fortelius M. 2003. Evolution of dental capability in Western Eurasian large mammal plant-eaters 22–2 million years ago: a case for environmental forcing mediated by biotic processes. In: Legakis A, Sfenthourakis S, Polymeni R and Thessalou-Legaki M. (eds.) The New Panorama of Animal Evolution: Proceedings of the XVIII International Congress of Zoology, Athens, Greece, September 2000. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow. [dataset]

• Fortelius M, Eronen J, Liu LP, Pushkina D, Tesakov A, Vislobokova I, and Zhang ZQ. 2003. Continental-scale hypsodonty patterns, climatic paleobiogeography and dispersal of Eurasian Neogene large mammal herbivores. In: Reumer JWF, and Wessels W. (eds.) Distribution and Migration of Tertiary Mammals in Eurasia. A volume in honour of Hans de Bruijn. Deinsea 10: 1-11. [PDF] [dataset]

•Bernor RL, Kordos L, and Rook L. 2003. Recent Advances on Multidisciplinary Research at Rudab‡nya, Late Miocene (MN9), Hungary: A compendium. Palaeontographia Italica 89: 3-36.

• Koufos GD 2003. Late Miocene mammal events and biostratigraphy in the Eastern Mediterranean In: Reumer JWF & Wessels W. (eds.) Distribution and Migration of Tertiary Mammals in Eurasia. A volume in honour of Hans de Bruijn, Deinsea 10: 343-372. Utrecht, The Netherlands.


• Fortelius M, Eronen J, Jernvall J, Liu L, Pushkina D, Rinne J, Tesakov A, Vislobokova I, Zhang Z, and Zhou L. 2002. Fossil mammals resolve regional patterns of Eurasian climate change over 20 million years. Evolutionary Ecology Research 4: 1005-1016. [PDF] [dataset]

• Jernvall, J, and Fortelius M. 2002. Common mammals drive the evolutionary increase of hypsodonty in the Neogene. Nature 417: 538-540. [PDF]


• Agustí, J. 2001. Defining MN-units and magnetobiostratigraphic correlation of the Spanish sections. In: Latal C, and Pillar WE. (eds.) Environmental and Ecosystem Dynamics of the Eurasian Neogene (EEDEN). Stratigraphy & Paleogeography Workshop, March 15–18 2001, Graz, Austria. Berichte des Institutes für Geologie und Paläontologie der Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz/Austria 4: 23-26.

• Agustí J, Cabrera L, and Garcés, M. 2001. Chronology and zoogeography of the Miocene hominoid record in Europe. In: de Bonis L, Koufos GD, and Andrews P. (eds.) Hominoid Evolution and Climate Change: Volume 2, Phylogeny of the Neogene Hominoid Primates of Eurasia. pp. 2-18. Cambridge University Press, London.

• Agustí J, Cabrera L, Garcés, M, Krijgsman W, Oms O, and Parés JM. 2001. A calibrated mammal scale for the Neogene of Western Europe. State of the art. Earth Science Reviews 52: 247–260. [PDF]

• Agustí J, and Oms O. 2001. On the age of the last hipparionine faunas in western Europe. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences Series IIA Earth and Planetary Science 332(4): 291-297.

• Agustí J, Oms O, and Remacha E. 2001. Long Plio-Pleistocene Terrestrial Record of Climate Change and Mammal Turnover in Southern Spain. Quaternary Research 56(3): 411-418.

• Alba DM, Agustí J, and Moyà-Solà S. 2001. Completeness of the mammalian fossil record in the Iberian Neogene. Paleobiology 27(1): 79-83. [PDF]

• Bernor RL, Fortelius M, and Rook L. 2001. Evolutionary Biogeography and Paleoecology of the Oreopithecus bambolii ”Faunal Zone” (late Miocene, Tusco-Sardinian Province). In: Rook L, and Torre D. (eds.) Neogene and Quaternary continental stratigraphy and mammal evolution. Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana 40(2): 139-148. [dataset]

• Fortelius M, and Hokkanen A. 2001. The trophic context of hominoid occurrence in the Later Miocene of Western Eurasia – a primate-free view. In: de Bonis L, Koufos GD, and Andrews P. (eds.) Hominoid Evolution and Climate Change: Volume 2, Phylogeny of the Neogene Hominoid Primates of Eurasia. pp. 19-47. Cambridge University Press, London. [dataset]

• Garcés M, Krijgsman W, and Agustí J. 2001. Chronostratigraphic framework and evolution of the Fortuna basin (Eastern Betics) since the Late Miocene. Basin Research 13(2): 199-216.


• Krijgsman W, Garcés M, Agustí J, Raffi I, Taberner C, and Zachariasse WJ. 2000. The 'Tortonian salinity crisis' of the eastern Betics (Spain). Earth and Planetary Science Letters 181: 497-511.


• Agusti J, Andrews P, Fortelius M, and Rook L. 1998. Hominoid evolution and environmental change in the Neogene of Europe: a European Science Foundation network. Journal of Human Evolution 34(1): 103-107. [PDF]

• Alroy J, Bernor RL, Fortelius M, and Werdelin L. 1998. The MN system: regional or continental? Mitteilungen der Bayerischen Staatssamlung für Paläontologie und historische Geologie 38: 243-258. [dataset]


• Werdelin L, and Fortelius M. 1997. Biogeographic characterisation of MN unit reference localities. In: Aguilar J-P, Legendre S, and Michaux J. (eds.) Actes du Congrès BiochroM'97. Mémoires et Travaux, École Pratique des Hautes Études, Institut de Montpellier 21: 67-73.


• Bernor RL, Fahlbusch V, Andrews P, de Bruijn H, Fortelius M, Rögl F, Steininger FF, and Werdelin L. 1996. The evolution of western Eurasian Neogene mammal faunas: a chronologic, systematic, biogeographic, and paleoenvironmental synthesis. In: Bernor RL, Fahlbusch V, and Mittmann W. (eds.) The Evolution of Western Eurasian Neogene Mammal Faunas. pp. 449-470. Columbia University Press.

• Fortelius M, Andrews P, Bernor RL, and Werdelin L. 1996. Preliminary analysis of taxonomic diversity, turnover and provinciality in a subsample of large land mammals from the later Miocene of western Eurasia. In: Nadachowski A, and Werdelin L. (eds.) Neogene and Quaternary Mammals of the Palaearctic. Conference in honour of Professor Kazimierz Kowalski. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 39: 167-178.

• Fortelius M, van der Made J, and Bernor R. 1996. Middle and Late Miocene Suoidea of central Europe and the eastern Mediterranean: evolution, biogeography and paleoecology. In: Bernor RL,Fahlbusch V, and Mittmann W. (eds.) The Evolution of Western Eurasian Neogene Mammal Faunas. pp. 348-377. Columbia University Press. [dataset]

• Fortelius M, Werdelin L. Andrews P, Bernor RL, Gentry A, Humphrey L, Mittmann W, and Viranta S. 1996. Provinciality, diversity, turnover and paleoecology in land mammal faunas of the later Miocene of western Eurasia. In: Bernor RL, Fahlbusch V, and Mittmann W. (eds.) The Evolution of Western Eurasian Neogene Mammal Faunas. pp. 414-448. Columbia University Press. [dataset]