PubMed Search for Kai Kaila
Reviews and book chapters by Kai Kaila
Books written or edited by Kai Kaila

Selected publications

Helmy MM, Ruusuvuori E, Watkins PV, Voipio J, Kanold PO, Kaila K. Acid extrusion via blood-brain barrier causes brain alkalosis and seizures after neonatal asphyxia. Brain. 2012 Nov;135(Pt 11):3311-9.

Puskarjov M, Ahmad F, Kaila K, Blaesse P (2012). Activity-Dependent Cleavage of the K-Cl Cotransporter KCC2 Mediated by Calcium-Activated Protease Calpain. J Neurosci 32:11356-11364.

Tolner EA, Sheikh A, Yukin AY, Kaila K and Kanold PO (2012). Subplate neurons promote spindle bursts and thalamocortical patterning in the neonatal rat somatosensory cortex. J. Neurosci. 32: 692-702.

Helmy MM, Tolner EA, Vanhatalo S, Voipio J, Kaila K (2011). Brain alkalosis causes birth asphyxia seizures, suggesting therapeutic strategy. Ann Neurol. 69: 493-500.

Schuchmann S, Hauck S, Henning S, Grüters-Kieslich A, Vanhatalo S, Schmitz D and Kaila K (2011). Respiratory alkalosis in children with febrile seizures. Epilepsia 52: 1949-55.

Tolner EA, Hochman DW, Hassinen P, Otáhal J, Gaily E, Haglund MM, Kubová H, Schuchmann S, Vanhatalo S, Kaila K (2011). Five percent CO? is a potent, fast-acting inhalation anticonvulsant. Epilepsia 52: 104-114.

Khirug S, Ahmad F, Puskarjov M, Afzalov R, Kaila K, Blaesse P (2010). A single seizure episode leads to rapid functional activation of KCC2 in the neonatal rat hippocampus. J Neurosci. 30: 12028-12035.

Ruusuvuori E, Kirilkin I, Pandya N, Kaila K (2010). Spontaneous network events driven by depolarizing GABA action in neonatal hippocampal slices are not attributable to deficient mitochondrial energy metabolism. J Neurosci. 30: 15638-15642.

Blaesse P, Airaksinen MS, Rivera C, Kaila K (2009). Cation-chloride cotransporters and neuronal function. Neuron 61:820-838.

Sipilä ST, Huttu K, Yamada J, Afzalov R, Voipio J, Blaesse P, Kaila K (2009): Compensatory Enhancement of Intrinsic Spiking upon NKCC1 Disruption in Neonatal Hippocampus. J Neurosci 29:6982-6988.

Khirug S, Yamada J, Afzalov R, Voipio J, Khiroug L, Kaila K. (2008):  GABAergic depolarization of the axon initial segment in cortical principal neurons is caused by the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC1. J Neurosci. 28(18):4635-4639.

Vanhatalo S, Kaila K. (2008): Generation of 'positive slow waves' in the preterm EEG: By the brain or by the EEG setup? Clin Neurophysiol. 119:1453-1454.

Schuchmann S, Tolner EA, Marshall P, Vanhatalo S, Kaila K. (2008): Pronounced increase in breathing rate in the "hair dryer model" of experimental febrile seizures. Epilepsia 49:926-928.

Colonnese MT, Phillips MA, Constantine-Paton M, Kaila K, Jasanoff A (2008). Development of hemodynamic responses and functional connectivity in rat somatosensory cortex. Nat Neurosci 11:72-79.

Li H, Khirug S, Cai C, Ludwig A, Blaesse P, Kolikova J, Afzalov R, Coleman SK, Lauri S, Airaksinen MS, Keinänen K, Khiroug L, Saarma M, Kaila K, Rivera C (2007). KCC2 Interacts with the Dendritic Cytoskeleton to Promote Spine Development. Neuron 56:1019-1033.

Huberfeld G, Wittner L, Clemenceau S, Baulac M, Kaila K, Miles R, Rivera C (2007). Perturbed chloride homeostasis and GABAergic signaling in human temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurosci. 27: 9866-9873.

Schuchmann S, Schmitz S, Rivera C, Vanhatalo S, Mackie K, Sipila ST, Voipio J, Kaila K (2006) Experimental febrile seizures are precipitated by a hyperthermia-induced respiratory alkalosis. Nature Med, 12: 817-823.

Sipilä ST, Schuchmann S, Voipio J, Yamada J, Kaila K (2006). The Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) promotes sharp waves in the neonatal rat hippocampus. J. Physiol. 573 (Pt3): 765-773.

Palva JM, Palva S, Kaila K. (2005). Phase synchrony among neuronal oscillations in the human cortex. J Neurosci. 25:3962-3972.

Sipilä S, Huttu K, Soltesz I, Voipio J, Kaila K. (2005). Depolarizing GABA acts on intrinsically bursting pyramidal neurons to drive 'Giant Depolarizing Potentials' in the immature hippocampus. J Neurosci. 25:5280-5289.

Khirug S, Huttu K, Ludwig A, Smirnov S, Voipio J, Rivera C, Kaila K, Khiroug L. (2005). Distinct properties of functional KCC2 expression in immature mouse hippocampal neurons in culture and in acute slices. Eur J Neurosci. 21:899-904.

Sipila S, Huttu K, Voipio J, Kaila K. (2004). GABA uptake via GABA transporter-1 modulates GABAergic transmission in the immature hippocampus. J Neurosci. 24:5877-5880.

Rivera C, Voipio J, Thomas-Crusells J, Li H, Emri Z, Sipilä S, Payne JA, Minichiello L, Saarma M, Kaila K. (2004). Mechanism of activity-dependent downregulation of the neuron-specific K-Cl cotransporter KCC2. J. Neurosci. 24:4683-4691.

Vanhatalo S, Palva JM, Holmes MD, Miller JW, Voipio J and Kaila K. (2004). Infraslow oscillations modulate excitability and interictal epileptic activity in the human cortex during sleep. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:5053-5057.

Ruusuvuori E, Li H, Huttu K, Palva JM, Smirnov S, Rivera C, Kaila K and Voipio J. (2004). Carbonic anhydrase isoform VII acts as a molecular switch in the development of synchronous gamma-frequency firing of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. J Neurosci 24:2699-2707.

Santhakumar V, Voipio J, Kaila K, Soltesz I. (2003). Post-traumatic hyperexcitability is not caused by impaired buffering of extracellular potassium. J. Neurosci. 23:5865-76.

Vanhatalo S, Holmes MD, Tallgren P, Voipio J, Kaila K, Miller JW (2003). Very slow EEG responses lateralize temporal lobe seizures: an evaluation of non-invasive DC-EEG. Neurology 60:1098-1104.

Rivera C, Thomas-Crusells J, Lahtinen H, Viitanen T, Nanobashvili A, Kokaia Z, Airaksinen MS, Voipio J, Kaila K, Saarma M (2002). BDNF-induced TrkB activation down-regulates the K+-Cl- cotransporter KCC2 and impairs neuronal Cl- extrusion. J. Cell Biol. 159:747-752.

Gulyás, A.I., Sík A., Payne J.A., Kaila K., and Freund T.F. (2001). The K-Cl cotransporter, KCC2, is highly expressed in the vicinity of excitatory synapses in the rat hippocampus. Eur. J. Neurosci. 13:2205-2217.

Palva M., Lamsa K., Lauri S.E., Rauvala H., Kaila K., Taira T. (2000). Fast network oscillations in the newborn rat hippocampus. J. Neurosci. 20: 1170-1178.

Rivera C., Voipio J., Payne J.A., Ruusuvuori E., Lahtinen H., Lamsa K., Saarma M., Kaila K. (1999). The K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 renders GABA hyperpolarizing during neuronal maturation. Nature 397, 251-255.

Kaila K., Lamsa K., Smirnov S., Taira T., Voipio J. (1997). Long-lasting GABA-mediated depolarization evoked by high-frequency stimulation in pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampal slice is attributable to a network-driven, bicarbonate-dependent K+ transient. J. Neurosci. 17, 7662-7672.

Kaila K., Voipio J., Pasternack M., Paalasmaa P., Deisz R. (1993). The role of bicarbonate in GABAA receptor-mediated IPSPs of rat neocortical neurons. J. Physiol. 464: 273-289.

Kaila K., Voipio J. (1987). Postsynaptic fall in intracellular pH induced by GABA-activated bicarbonate conductance. Nature 330: 163-165.


Pavlov I, Kaila K, Kullmann DM, Miles R 2012. Cortical inhibition, pH and cell excitability in epilepsy: what are optimal targets for antiepileptic interventions? J Physiol. 591 (Pt4): 765-774.

Löscher W, Puskarjov M, Kaila K 2012. Cation-chloride cotransporters NKCC1 and KCC2 as potential targets for novel antiepileptic and antiepileptogenic treatments. Neuropharmacology 2012 Jun 15.

Miles R, Blaesse P, Huberfeld G, Wittner L, Kaila K 2012: Chloride homeostasis and GABA signaling in temporal lobe epilepsy, In: Jasper's Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies, 4th edition. Eds. Noebels, Avoli, Rogawski, Olsen, Delgado-Escueta, (Oxford University Press) Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 2012.

Kaila K 2011: A prestabilized harmony. Neuron 71:201-202.

Vanhatalo S, Voipio J, Kaila K 2011: Infraslow EEG activity. In: Electroencephalography: Basic Principles, Clinical Applications, and Related Fields, 6th edition, Eds. Niedermeyer E, Lopes da Silva F, pp. 741-747. Baltimore-Munich: Williams & Wilkins.

Vanhatalo S, Kaila K 2010: Emergence of spontaneous and evoked EEG activity in the human brain. In: The Newborn Brain: Neuroscience and Clinical Applications (2nd Ed). Pp 229-244. Eds. Lagercrantz H, Hanson M., Evrard P, Rod C. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge

Sipilä ST, Kaila K 2010: GABAergic transmission and neuronal network events during hippocampal development. In: Developmental Plasticity of Inhibitory Circuitry. Ed. Pallas, S. Springer.

Sipilä ST, Blaesse P, Kaila K 2010: Development of GABAergic signaling: from molecules to emerging networks. In: Oxford Handbook of Developmental Behavioral Neuroscience. Eds: Blumberg MS, Freeman JH, Robinson SR, pp 108-769. Oxford University Press.

Blaesse P, Airaksinen MS, Rivera C, Kaila K (2009). Cation-chloride cotransporters and neuronal function. Neuron 61:820-838.

Schuchmann S, Vanhatalo S, Kaila K (2009). Neurobiological and physiological mechanisms of fever-related epileptiform syndromes. Brain and Development 31:378-382.

Sipilä ST, Kaila K 2008: GABAergic Control of CA3-driven network events in the developing hippocampus. In: Inhibitory Regulation of Excitatory Neurotransmission, Ed. Mark Darlison, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. Results Probl Cell Differ. 44:99-121.

Buzsáki G, Kaila K, Raichle M (2007). Inhibition and brain work. Neuron 56(5):771-783.

Farrant M, Kaila K (2007). The cellular, molecular and ionic basis of GABA(A) receptor signalling. Prog Brain Res. 160:59-87.

Sipilä ST, Kaila K (2007). GABAergic Control of CA3-driven network events in the developing hippocampus. In: Inhibitory Regulation of Excitatory Neurotransmission, Ed. Mark Darlison, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. Results Probl Cell Differ Jul 11, 2007.

Vanhatalo S, Kaila K. (2006). Development of neonatal EEG activity: From phenomenology to physiology. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 11:471-478.

Vanhatalo S, Voipio J, Kaila K (2005). Full-Band EEG (FbEEG): an emerging standard in electroencephalography. Clin Neurophysiol 116(1):1-8.

Rivera C, Voipio J, Kaila K (2005). Two developmental switches in GABAergic signalling: the K-Cl cotransporter KCC2, and carbonic anhydrase CAVII. J Physiol 562:27-36.

Vanhatalo S, Miller JW, Holmes MD, Kaila K, Voipio J (2005). Full-band EEG in locating slow ictal events. In: Epilepsy Surgery: Principles and Controversies, Eds. Miller JW and Silberstein D. Marcel Dekker.

Vanhatalo S, Voipio J, Kaila K (2004). Infraslow EEG Activity. In: Electroencephalography: Basic Principles, Clinical Applications, and Related Fields, 5th edition. Eds. E. Niedermeyer and F Lopes da Silva, pp. 489-493. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadephia.

Payne JA, Rivera C, Voipio J, Kaila K (2003). Cation-chloride co-transporters in neuronal communication, development and trauma. Trends Neurosci. 26:199-206.

Voipio J, Kaila K. (2000). GABAergic excitation and K+ -mediated volume transmission in the hippocampus. Prog Brain Res. 125:329-38.

Ballanyi K., Kaila K. (1998). Transmitter-evoked shifts in intracellular pH. In: pH and Brain Function. Ed. K. Kaila and B. Ransom, pp. 291-308. Wiley-Liss, New York.

Kaila K., Chesler M. (1998). Synaptically-evoked extracellular pH transients. In: pH and Brain Function. Ed. K. Kaila and B. Ransom, pp. 309-337. Wiley-Liss, New York.

Kaila K., Ransom B. (1998). Concept of pH and its importance in neurobiology. In: pH and Brain Function. Ed. K. Kaila and B. Ransom, pp. 3-10. Wiley-Liss, New York.

Kaila K. (1994). Ionic basis of GABA-A receptor channel function in the nervous system. Prog. Neurobiol. 42: 489-537.

Chesler K., Kaila K. (1992). Modulation of pH by neuronal activity. Trends Neurosci. 15: 396-402

Kaila K., Voipio, J. (1990). GABA-activated bicarbonate conductance: influence on EGABA and on postsynaptic pH regulation. In: Chloride Channels and Carriers in Nerve, Muscle and Glial Cells. Ed. F.J. Alvarez-Leefmans, J.M. Russell, pp. 331- 353. Plenum Press, New York.

Kaila K. (1990). New views on classical inhibition. IBRO News 18/2: 7


Kaila K., Ransom B. (eds) 1998: pH and Brain Function. Wiley-Liss, New York.

Kaila K. 1985: Textbook (in Finnish): Hermoston ja käyttäytymisen biologiaa. Otava, Helsinki. (A Primer of Behavioural Neurobiology.)

News & views

Neonatal gap: Protecting the child's brain (2011)

Nature Reviews Neurology Highlight: Epilepsy: A new therapeutic strategy in epileptic seizure suppression (2010)

Tempus Bion project interview (2010)

JAES: Keskoslasten aivotutkimus (2009)

Nordic Centre of Excellence: Dangerous Water (2008)

Bernstein Network Computational Neuroscience News: Why can fever cause seizures? (2006)

YLE Terveys: Kuumekouristusten hoitoon hiilidioksidia? (2006)

Palolahti: Haastattelussa akatemiaprofessori Kai Kaila (2005)

Kai Kaila: Neurobiologia – Silta fysiikasta psykologiaan (1998)

Kai Kaila, Esa Kuismanen: Nykybiologian maailmankuva (1999)


Faraz Ahmad: Post-translational regulation of KCC2 in the rat hippocampus (2012)

Stanislav Khirug: Functional expression and subcellular localization of the Cl- cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1 in rodent hippocampal and neocortical neurons (2011)

Zachi Horn: Cytoskeleton-interacting proteins in brainstem development (2011) Co-supervision with Eric Herlenius, Karolinska Institutet

Tero Viitanen: GABAa Receptor Mediated Signalling in the Brain: Inhibition, Shunting and Excitation (2010)

Eva Ruusuvuori: Ion-regulatory proteins in neuronal development and communication (2008)

Hong Li: Structural and functional roles of KCC2 in the developing cortex (2008)

Sampsa Sipilä: Cellular and network mechanisms generating spontaneous population events in the immature rat hippocampus (2006)

Matias Palva: Interactions among neuronal oscillations in the developing and adult brain (2005)

Marylka Uusisaari: GABAergic mechanisms of excitation and hypersynchrony in adult rat hippocampus (2003)

Karri Lämsä: GABAA Receptor-Mediated Excitation in the Hippocampus of Adult and Newborn Rats (2000)

Katri Wegelius: Distribution and Function of GABA Receptor rho Subunits in the Rat Nervous System (2000)

Sari Lauri: Heparan Sulfate-Dependent Cell-Extracellular Matrix Interactions in the Regulation of Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) (1999)

Sergei Smirnov:Intrinsic Ionic Modulation of Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus (1998)

Pekka Paalasmaa:Ionic Mechanisms Underlying Activity-induced Alkaline Transients in the Extracellular Space of the Brain (1996)

Tomi Taira: Mechanisms and Consequences of Interstitial pH Transients Evoked by Synaptic Activity in the Brain (1995)

Michael Pasternack: Ionic Mechanisms of GABA Action in Excitable Cells (1992)

Last modified: April 24, 2013