Bibliography: On Evil
(compiled by Jari Kauppinen)
liittyvää kirjallisuutta (compiled by Jari Kauppinen, literature
on consentration camps, in Finnish)
A Finnish translation of Kant's text "Radical Evil"
and articles analyzing the concept of evil in selected western thinkers,
including Kant, Zizek, Nietzsche, Derrida, Benjamin and Arendt. The goal
is to provide conceptual means to confront evil in a more philosophical
and argumentative way in the various forms in which it is encountered
in our world.
in Western Tradition some links
(427 NC 347 BC)
none of the wise men considers that anybody ever willingly
errs or willingly does base and evil deeds" Plato, Protagoras
345d-e (transl. W.R.M. Lamb)
359b-379c , X:
(384 BC 322 BC)
For the good is not called good of the bad,
but the contrary of it; and the white not white of the black, but
its contrary. /--/ bad and good are predicated both of men and of many
other things, but it is not necessary for one or the other of them to
belong to those things they are predicated of (for not all are either
bad or good). And between these there is certainly something intermediate
between white and black are grey, yellow and all other colours,
and between the bad and the good the neither bad nor good. Aristotle,
Cat. 10, 11b 36 & 12a 1420 (transl. J.L. Ackrill)
Mackenna & Page
Society Library: Manichaean Writings (including Augustine's antimanichean
St. Augustine (354430)
Where is evil then, and from whence, and how crept it in hither?
What is the root, and what the seed of it? Or hath it at all no being?
/--/ Whence is evil therefore, seeing God who is good, hath created all
these things good /--/ St. Augustine, Confessions VII, 5
(transl. W. Watts)
To the divine providence it has seemed good to prepare
in the world to come for the righteous good things, which the unrighteous
shall not enjoy; and for the wicked evil things, by which the good shall
not be tormented. Augustine, City of God 1, VIII (transl.
English transl.: Pussey,
civitate Dei transl.
St. Anselm of Canterbury (1033 - 1109)
De conceptu virginali et de originali peccato in
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
As Augustine says (Enchiridion xi):"Since God
is the highest good, He would not allow any evil to exist in His works,
unless His omnipotence and goodness were such as to bring good even out
of evil. " This is part of the infinite goodness of God, that He
should allow evil to exist, and out of it produce good. Summa
lat. (partial), in
english (Benziger Bros. edition, 1947)
Cause of Evil, Of
the Good and Evil of Human Acts, Of
the Goodness and Malice of the Interior Act of the Will, Of
Goodness and Malice in External Human Actions, Of
the Consequences of Human Actions by Reason of Their Goodness and Malice,
Good and Evil in the Passions of the Soul, Of
the Goodness and Malice of Pleasures, Of
the Goodness and Malice of Sorrow or Pain, Of
That Cause of Sin Which Is Malice, etc.
Summa contra gentiles engl.
in God there can be no Evil, That
God knows Evil Things, That
God cannot will Evil, That
Evil in things is beside the Intention of the Agent, That
Evil is not a Nature or Essence, That
the Cause of Evil is good, That
Evil is founded in some Good, etc. ...
Machiavelli (14961527): Il
principe (1514) in
Pierre Bayle (1647-1706): Dictionnaire
historique et critique
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (16461716)
de Théodicée (1710)
Monde comme il va, Vision de Babou (1746)
sur la Destruction de Lisbonne, ou Examen de cet Aziome, Tout Bien"
Dictionaire philosophique (1764) in
French (part) in
English (part) another
Engish transl.: "Of
the Conscience of Good and of Evil"
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (17121778)
sur lorigin et les fondements de linégalité
parmi les hommes (1755) in
David Hume (17111776)
Concerning Natural Religion
Hence we can call this a natural
propensity to evil, and as we must, after all, ever hold man himself responsible
for it, we can further call it a radical innate evil in human nature (yet
none the less brought upon us by ourselves). (transl. Greene &
Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen Vernunft
(A: 1773, B: 1774). In
English (tr. Greene & Hudson)
Marquis de Sade (1740-1814)
120 journées de Sodome (1785)
infortunes de la vertu (1787)
Philosophie dans le boudoir (1795)
nouvelle Justine (1797)
de Juliette (1801)
F.W.J. Schelling (1775-1854)
Untersuchungen über das Wesen der Menschlichen Freiheit (1809/34)
des Geistes (1807) transl.
Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Geschichte transl.
Vorlesungen über die Historie der Religion transl.
Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860)
Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855)
The pathos of nobility and distance,
as aforesaid, the protracted and domineering fundamental total feeling
on the part of a higher ruling order in relation to a lower order, to
a "below"that is the origin of the antithesis "good"
and "bad." (Genealogy of Morals, Section 2)
Genealogie der Moral (1887) transl.
Sigmung Freud (1856-1939)
Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)
The concepts of privation and lack which, moreover, are not
very transparent are already insufficient for the ontological Interpretation
of the phenomenon of quilt, though if we take them formally enough, we
can put them to considerable use. Least of all can we come any closer
to the existential phenomenon of quilt by takin our orientation from the
idea of evil, the malumas privatio boni. Just as the bonum
and its privatio have the same ontological origin in the ontology
of the present-at-hand, this ontology also applies to the idea
of 'value', which has been 'abstracted' from these.
Not only can entities whose Being is care load themselves with factucal
guilt, but they are guilty in the very basis of their Being; and
this Being-quilty is what provides, above all, the ontological condition
for Dasein's ability to come to owe anything in factically existing. This
essential Being-quilty is, equiprimordially, the existential condition
for the possibility of the 'morally' good and for that of the 'morally'
evilthat is, for morality in general and for the possible forms
which this may take factically. The primodrial "Being-quilty"
cannot be defined by morality, since morality already presupposes it for
itself. Being and Time, §58, "Understanding the
Appeal, and Guilt" (transl. Macquarrie & Robinson)
Transcendance et mal
Century with Levinas
Michel Foucault (1926-1984)
Jacques Derrida (1930-2004)