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IEHC 2006

XIV International Economic History Congress

Helsinki, Finland, 21 to 25 August 2006
SESSIONS 81 to 124

Household Strategies in Twentieth-Century Eastern Europe: Coping with Demographic and Economic Shock

S.A. Afontsev, Dr., Institute for World Economy and International Relations, Russia
G.C. Kessler, Dr., International Institute of Social History, The Netherlands

G.C. Kessler
International Institute of Social History
Cruquiusweg 31
1019 AT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
tel.: +31 20 6685866
fax: +31 20 6654181
e-mail: gke@iisg.nl

For many of the countries of the part of the European Continent usually designated as Eastern Europe the twentieth century was a century marked by recurrent periods of severe material deprivation and demographic crises. The wars of the first half of the century were fought with particular ferocity in the region and exacted a heavy toll on both the military and the civil population. The second half of the century, with most of the countries in this region brought under the sway of socialist regimes of Soviet vintage, brought material deprivation at less extreme, but chronic levels. The breakdown of these regimes, finally, started a period of painful reforms and a difficult transition to market economies, again at great social and demographic costs. The session takes a household perspective to explain how the population dealt with the challenges posed by these periods of hardship. Following recent shifts of focus in labour history from the individual to the larger social entities in which individuals are embedded, the household is studied both as a locus of decision-making and as a social safety net which filters the socio-economic impact of crises.

Part I Introdution: Gijs Kessler
Aleksandar Brzic (Nyenrode Business Universiteit, The Netherlands) Ducat hoarding as an antidote to political and social insecurity in the XXcentury: an example from a family in Eastern Serbia
Timur Valetov (Moscow State University, Russia) Russian Urban Households' Patterns of Economic Activity under the Early Industrialisation, 1890s-1914
Gijs Kessler (IISH, The Netherlands) Survival Repertoires of Soviet Urban Households in War and Peace, 1914-39
Andrey Shlyakhter (University of Chicago, USA) Smuggling Across the Soviet Borders: Contraband Trade and the Soviet Struggle Against It, 1917-1939
Part II  
Andrei Markevich (University of Warwick, UK) Coping with the War Shock: Adaptation of Soviet Urban Households to the Crisis of the Second World War and Their Return to "Normalcy" under LateStalinism
Sergey A. Afontsev (Institute for World Economy, Russia) The Choice of Income-Earning Activities: Russian Urban Households and the Challenges of Transition
Discussant I Mark Harrison
Discussant II Jan Lucassen

Location and time: Room 12 Metsätalo building, 22 August 9.00-12.30

The Question of the First EEC/EC Enlargement and the Other European Countries' Response, 1961-1973

Tapani Paavonen, Dr., University of Turku, Finland
Hans Otto Frøland, Assoc. Prof., University of Trondheim, Norway

Tapani Paavonen
University of Turku
Department of Contemporary History
Arwidssoninkatu 1, building 11
FI-20014 Turku, Finland
tel.: +358 2 333 6244
fax: +358 2 333 6585
e-mail: Tapani.Paavonen@utu.fi

The question of the first EEC/EC enlargement and the other European countries' relationship to it, topical in 1961-1973, was the first stage or phase in the process through which, during the last about 50 years, the Community of the "Six" has grown to the present West European economic space and political organization. Historical research has in resent times turned towards this topic, which development has been promoted by the fact that archival materials have recently been opened. However, this work is still at initial stages. The Session will gather European historians to discuss this development from a combined political and economic point of view, based on their research results and ongoing research. The session would target to a larger joint publication on the topic.

Part I  
Carine Germond (Yale University, USA) France, Germany and Britain's Second Application to the European Economic Community, 1966-1969
Robin Allers (Univ. of Hamburg, Germany) Negotiating with the 'Reluctant Europeans': The Franco-German couple and the Scandinavian countries' accession to the EC (1962-73)
Morten Rasmusen (Univ. of Aarhus, Denmark) Denmark and the EEC/EC Enlargement, 1961-1973
Part II  
Kristian Steinnes (Univ. of Trondheim, Norway) Developments in the EEC/EC 1960-1973 as Perceived within the British Labour Party and the Scandinavian Social Democratic Parties
Dag Axel Kristoffersen (Univ. of Oslo, Norway) Norway and European Integration 1947-1973. European identities in Norwegian foreign policy
Lasse Sonne (Univ. of Helsinki, Finland) The Response of Nordic Economic Co-operation to the Question of the first EEC/EC Enlargement 1961-73
Part III  
Fernando Guirao (Univ. of Pompeu Fabra, Spain) Spanish-EEC Trade Relations in the 1970s
Nicolau Andresen Leitao (Univ. of Lisbon, Portugal) Alice in Wonderland? Portugal and the attempt to enlarge the EEC, 1961-1963
Maurice FitzGerald (PIRES - Loughborough Univ., UK) Ireland within the Realms of the EC's First Wave of Enlargement
Part IV  
Mikhail Lipkin (Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia) The Soviet Union, CMEA and the Question of First EEC Enlargement
Suvi Kansikas (Univ. of Helsinki, Finland) Soviet Attitudes towards West European Integration in the late 1960s/early 1970s
Tapani Paavonen (Univ. of Turku, Finland) Finland and the Question of Free Trade Integration in Western Europe

Location and time: Room 10 Main Building, 23 August 9.00-12.30 and 14.00-17.30

Women’s Financial Decisions: Their Wealth, Their Choices, Their Activity 1700-1930

Anne Laurence, Prof., Open University, United Kingdom
Stefania Licini, Assoc. Prof., Università degli Studi di Bergamo, Italy
Josephine Maltby, Prof., University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Janette Rutterford, Prof., Open University, United Kingdom

Josephine Maltby
Management School
University of Sheffield
9 Mappin Street
Sheffield S1 4DT, United Kingdom
tel: +44 114 222 3430
e-mail: j.maltby@shef.ac.uk

The currency of the "separate spheres" view of women’s lives in the early modern period has until recently discouraged study of the extent of women’s financial activity, suggesting that women were excluded from commerce and investment. A growing body of research has, however, drawn attention to women’s participation in business and their ownership of assets, including financial investments, from the 18th century onwards. The aim of this session is to internationalise the debate by drawing together contributions, from both the developed and the developing world, including Great Britain, Italy, Germany, the USA and the West Indies, on the financial and business role of women – as investors, advisers, debtors and creditors – and in particular to gain insights into international differences and similarities between the extent of women’s financial involvement. The period under review included, in many countries, developments in financial assets (Government bonds, the growth of limited companies and their securities) as well as in women’s legal status, and the session aims to investigate the effect of these on women’s financial behaviour. Important themes will include women’s financial preferences (e.g. their risk-seeking/aversion, choice of family versus public companies), their use of formal or informal credit networks, and the extent to which they appear to have acted autonomously in their financial decision-making.
For the papers please see the following link: www.open.ac.uk/iehc-session

Ann M. Carlos (Uiversity of Colorado, USA), Larry Neal (University of Illinois, USA) & Shannon Horn (University of Colorado, USA) Women, Property and Securities in the City of London, 1720-1725
Peter Baskerville, University of Victoria, Canada Gender and Investment in Urban Canada: Victoria and Hamilton, 1869-1931
David Green, King’s College London, UK Decision Time: lifetime accumulation of wealth in nineteenth-century Britain
Kris Inwood, University of Guelph, Canada One Story Or Many? Women, Property and Work
Naoko Komori, Manchester Business School, UK 'Okami-san' (Female Proprietor) or ‘Oku-san’ (Women in the Backroom)? Women's Role in Financial Management in Japan
Anne Laurence, Open University, UK Women, banks and the securities market in early eighteenth century England
Stefania Licini, University of Bologna, Italy Women, wealth and finance in 19th century Italy
Josephine Maltby (University of Sheffield, UK) & Janette Rutterford (Open University, UK) Women and investment risk in a historical context
Nancy Marie Robertson, Indiana University/Purdue University, USA The Principles of Sound Banking and Financial Noblesse Oblige: Women's Departments in American Banks at the turn of the 20th century
Claire Swan, University of Dundee, UK Female investors within the Scottish investment trust movement: Independent women or desperate housewives?
Susan M. Yohn, Hofstra University, USA Men That Wouldn’t Cheat Each Other Seem to Take Delight in Cheating Women: Court Challenges Faced by U.S. Businesswomen in the Nineteenth Century

Location and time: Room 2 Metsätalo building, 21 August 14.30-18.00 and 22 August 9.00-12.30

Empirical Contributions in New Institutional Economics and History

Joel Mokyr, Prof., Nortwestern University, USA
Jari Eloranta, Dr., Appalachian State University, USA
Juha-Antti Lamberg, Dr., Helsinki University of Technology, Finland

Jari Eloranta
Appalachian State University
Department of History
Whitener Hall, Boone
NC 28608, USA
tel.: +1 828 2622282
fax: +1 828 2624976
e-mail: elorantaj@appstate.edu

In this session we wish to bring forth new empirical research in NIE, especially studies which take into account the historical development of institutions (and organizations) and attempt to explain institutional change (or persistence) on the basis of the interaction of theory and empirical evidence. Thus, we hope to contribute new perspectives to institutional analysis by way of empirical analysis. Moreover, we will have papers exploring the various levels described above. Some of the papers will explore the Williamsonian TCE school and evaluate the possibilities of applying these models in practice (also, our introductory paper by Michael Sykuta); whereas others will focus more on the long-run implications of institutional (and organizational) change, such as bureaucracies (Williamson maintains that “bureaucracy remains a poorly understood condition no matter what lens is brought to bear”, Williamson 2002, 611) and overall institutional trajectories (national and transnational), with analytical perspectives adopted from Douglass C. North and others. We see, as have other scholars, empirical analysis of institutions in history as one of the key domains in the evolution of the NIE school as a whole.

Michael Sykuta (University of Missouri – Columbia, USA) Introduction
Victor Lapuente Gine (Nuffield College, Oxford University, UK) A Political Economy Approach to the Origins of Bureaucracies
Olga Mashkina (Institute of Economics, Novosibirsk, Russia) The Russian Forest Industry: Historical Institutional Perspective
Ran Abramitzky (Northwestern University, USA) Migration and Self-Selection: Lessons from the Israeli Kibbutz
Sophia Du Plessis (University of Stellenboch, South Africa) Institutions and Institutional Change in Zambia
Dan Bogart (University of California at Irvine, USA) Why do Property Rights Change? Lessons from the Diffusion of Turnpike Trusts in Eighteenth Century Britain
Andrew J. Seltzer & Jeff Frank (Royal Holloway, University of London, UK) Promotion Tournaments and White Collar Careers: Evidence from Williams Deacon’s Bank, 1890 – 1941
Ryan A. Compton (Washington University, USA), Daniel Giedeman (Grand Valley State University, USA), Noel D. Johnson (California State University, USA) Does it Take a Revolution?: An Empirical Study of Political Instability and Economic Growth in the Long Run
Yadira Gonzalez de Lara (Universidad de Alicante, Spain) The Secret of Venetian Success: Public-order yet Reputation-based Institutions
Michael Sykuta (USA)
Joel Mokyr (USA)
Dan Bogart (USA)
Juha-Antti Lamberg (Finland)
Jeff Bortz, Appalachian State University (USA)
Douglas Puffert, University of Leeds (United Kingdom)
Jari Ojala, University of Jyvaskylä (Finland)
Sulevi Riukulehto, University of South Ostrobothnia (Finland)

Location and time: Aud XV Main Building, 23 August 9.00-12.30 and 14.00-17.30

Guns Versus Butter Paradoxes in History

Peter Lindert, University of California - Davis, USA
Mark Harrison, University of Warwick, United Kingdom
Jari Eloranta, Appalachian State University, USA

Jari Eloranta
Appalachian State University
Department of History
Whitener Hall, Boone
NC 28608, USA
tel.: +1 828 2622282
fax: +1 828 2624976
e-mail: elorantaj@appstate.edu

Overall, here in this session the papers will address the possibility and various forms of guns versus butter tradeoffs, ranging from panel data settings (e.g. Eloranta-Harrison) to long-run case studies of various countries, covering different periods (e.g. Bystrova will analyze Soviet Union in the post-war period, whereas Diebolt-Jaoul will investigate Japan in the pre-World War II period). In addition, our panel will focus on exploring the effects and constraints imposed by various regime types, for example Hitler’s Germany in the 1930s (Spoerer-Streb), as well as alliance/economic constraints (Geiger’s paper). The empirical results and theoretical interaction should prove beneficial for the understanding of the various guns versus butter paradoxes and the spending behavior of states in history.

Hugh Rockoff (Rutgers University, USA) Introduction: Guns versus Butter in the US Case
Jari Eloranta, Mark Harrison Correlates of Mobilization in the Two World Wars
Irina Bystrova (Russian Academy of Sciences) Paradoxes of Soviet Arms Production and Trade at the Cold War Period
Mark Spoerer, Jochen Streb (University of Hohenheim, Germany) Butter and Guns? The Economic Impact of the Nazi Armament Policy on the Welfare of the German Consumers
Claude Diebolt (University Louis Pasteur, France), Magali Jaoul (Montpellier University, France) War, Education, and Economic Growth in Japan Before World War II
Till Geiger (University of Manchester, UK) It’s a matter of choice: Economic advice and the size of the British defence budget, 1945-1960
Commentators: Avner Offer (Oxford University), Andrei Markevich (Moscow State University), Peter Lindert (UC-Davis), Peter Howlett (London School of Economics), Stephen Broadberry (University of Warwick)

Location and time: Room 13 Main Building, 22 August 14.00-17.30

Foreign Aid for Economic Development

Helge Pharo, University of Oslo, Norway
Monika Pohle Fraser, University of Oslo, Norway
Gustav Schmidt, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany

Helge Pharo
Department of History
University of Oslo
PO Box 1008 Blindern
0315 Oslo, Norway
tel.: +47 2285 6874
fax: +47 2285 5278
e-mail: helge.pharo@iakh.uio.no

The session will discuss the role of foreign aid in promoting economic development in what since World War II has been known respectively as backward areas, underdeveloped countries and developing countries. While the growth theories of economic historians in the 1950s and 1960s commanded a wide following, they have been conspicuously absent from later discussions of the linkages between foreign aid and economic and social transformation in the developing countries. The history of development aid is now an emerging field of study, meriting a wider presentation within the profession. Since current aid policies appear singularly uninformed about the history of development aid, such a presentation is also called for. The session will deal with the roots of development aid in the post World War II period; with bilateral and multilateral aid; the role of international institutions in establishing the framework for aid transfers; the systemic problems of aid, such as donor-recipient cooperation and bureaucracy; self-sustainability and entrepreneurship.

Part I Chair: Gustav Schmidt, Ruhr-University Bochum
Heide-Irene Schmidt, Ruhr-University Bochum German Development Policies 1958-1974
Monika Pohle Fraser, University of Oslo 'Not the needy, but the speedy ones’. German development aid and private investment in the Middle East, 1960-67
Hanne Hagtvedt Vik, University of Oslo Small States in International Organizations – Nordic Strategies to influence the World Bank
Sunniva Engh, University of Oslo Northern Feminists and Southern Women: Scandinavian aid to the Indian family planning programme
Helge Pharo, University of Oslo Technological Change, Entrepreneurship and Bureaucratic Cooperation
Part II  
Tirthankar Roy, Gokhale Institute of Politics End of Aid: External Assistance and Development Strategy in India 1950-65
Hilde Selbervik, Christian Michelsen Institute Bergen Donor Dilemmas and Economic Conditionality in the 1990s: when Tanzania is as good as it gets
Sintayoh Fissha, Wirtschafts-universität, Vienna Impact of Conditionalities on Aid Effectiveness in Ethiopia
Bill Freund, University of Kwazulu-Natal State, Capital and the Emergence of a New Power Elite in South Africa: ‘Black Economic Empowerment’ at National and Local Levels

Location and time: Room 8 Main Building, 22 August 14.00-17.30

Economic History of the Baltic States: Past Performance and Future Prospects

Viesturs Pauls Karnups, Dr., University of Latvia, Latvia
Erika Šumilo, Prof. Dr., University of Latvia, Latvia
Baiba Šavrina, Prof. Dr., University of Latvia, Latvia

Viesturs Pauls Karnups
Apazijas bulv. 5
Riga, LV – 1050, Latvia
tel.: +371 7034789
e-mail: viesturs.karnups@ttc.lv

The three Baltic States (Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania) regained their independence in the early 1990s after some 50 years of occupation by the Soviet Union. The economic history of the Baltic States from earliest times to the present day is still terra incognito to many scholars in the field. Emerging from the collapse of the Russian Empire and the ruins of the First World War in 1918, the Baltic States still had to fight their Wars of Independence and it was not until 1920 that final peace treaties were signed with Soviet Russia. The Baltic States all faced the same task in 1920 and again with the regaining of independence in 1991 – to integrate into the European and world economy. The aim of the proposed session is to discuss change in the Baltic State economies in a long-term and comparative perspective, especially focussing on the economic relations between the Baltic States and other states of the Baltic Rim, as well as the economic relations between the Baltic States themselves.

Part I Chair: V. P. Karnups
Erika Sumilo Trade and Trade Policy Developments in the Baltic States after Regaining Independence before Joining the EU
Olaf Mertelsmann The Cost of Transition from Market to Command Economy: the Case of Estonia
Baiba Savrina History of Property Conversion in Latvia
Martin Klesment Estonian Economy under the Soviet Rule: A Historiographic Overview
Part II Chair: O. Mertelsmann
Viesturs Pauls Karnups The 1936 Devaluation of the Lat and its effect on Latvian Foreign Trade
Hans Jorgensen Agricultural Co-operative Associations in Estonia: Comparative aspects on the development from the 1860s to the interwar years
Jaak Valge Inflation as a Reason for Downfall of Democracy
Mikael Lönnborg, Mikael Olsson, Michael Rafferty FDI and Europe in Transition: The case of the banking sector in the Baltic States

Location and time: Room 10 Main Building, 22 August 14.00-17.30

A Global Industry in Transition: Technological, Economic and Hegemonic Changes in 19th Century Whaling

Bjørn L. Basberg, Prof., Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Norway
Eric Hilt, Prof., Wellesley College, USA

Bjørn L. Basberg
Economic History Section
Department of Economics
Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration
N-5045 Bergen, Norway
tel.: + 47 55959675
fax.: + 47 55959543
e-mail: bjorn.basberg@nhh.no

The American whaling industry which had dominated the industry globally, went into a gradual decline from the 1860s. The decline coincided with a period when an entirely new way of organizing the industry emerged in Norway - what was to become known as “modern whaling”. The economic history of the 19th century whaling industry has been thoroughly studied, but there still seem to be interesting research topics and questions especially relating this transition period. Was there a reluctance to adopt new technology in the American industry, and if so, what were the reasons for it? What were the contacts and “encounters” between the two whaling nations in the latter part of the century? What was the role played by the way resources were exploited and controlled? The session will welcome papers that deals with such and other topics that offers new perspectives on the 19th century whaling industry.

Bjørn L. Basberg Introduction
Eric D. Hilt (Wellesley College, USA) The Decline and Abandonment of Whaling in the United States
Bjørn L. Basberg (Norwegian School of Economics ) Two Hegemonies - Two Technological Regimes: American and Norwegian Whaling in the 19th and 20th Century
Per-Olof Grönberg Comments

Location and time: Room 15 Main Building, 22 August 9.00-12.30

Ageing and the Economy in the 19th and 20th Centuries

Patricia Thane, Prof., University of London, United Kingdom

Patricia Thane
Centre for Contemporary British History
Institute of Historical Research
University of London
Senate House, Malet Street
London WC1E 7HU, United Kingdom
tel. +44 207 862 8797
fax: +44 20 7 862 8812
e-mail: pat.thane@sas.ac.uk

The justification for this theme is that the economic implications of rising proportions of older people in their populations is currently a major concern for national governments and of international institutions, such as the World Bank. Concerns include the increased costs of pensions, health care and other services for an ageing population; the effects of shrinking populations of working age; the social costs eg. of intergenerational responsibilities for care. The purpose of the session will be to raise questions relevant to contemporary policy debates by examining the history of old age and ageing in a range of countries with varying experiences. It will focus upon the 18th to 20th centuries, since these periods are the best documented in this field. This is a field in which historical research has been limited and hardly exists in many countries. Hence the scope will be limited by the countries and regions for which relevant research is available. An aim of the session will be to raise research questions in order to stimulate further research in other countries. The session will focus upon the economic contributions of older men and women, to counter the more general emphasis upon the costs they impose upon their economies and societies. It will: trace patterns of work and retirement and the determinants of both. It will also examine patterns of expenditure and saving among older people; and the impact of ageing upon inheritance. Gender differences, in particular the significance of the longer life expectancies of women in most societies, will be explored.

Part I Chair: Pat Thane
Isidro Dubert (University of Santiago de Compostella, Spain) Old Age, Work and the Family in Rural Spain, 18th-20th centuries
Pat Thane (University of London) Ageing, Pensions and Retirement in Britain since the Late 19th century
Stephen Lovell (King’s College, London) Old Age and Work in the Soviet Union
Part II  
Catherine Omnés (Université de Paris) Older women and work in 20th century Paris
Marjatta Rahikainen (University of Helsinki) Age discrimination legitimised. Unemployment pensions in removing older employees in late 20th-century Finland

Location and time: Aud XIV Main Building, 25 August 14.00-17.30

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Cities and Innovation in Europe from the Renaissance to 2000

Peter Clark, Prof., University of Helsinki, Finland
Marjatta Hietala, Prof., Tampere University, Finland

Peter Clark
Department of History
University of Helsinki
PO Box 59, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
tel.: +358 9 19124529
fax: +358 9 19123217
e-mail: peter.clark@helsinki.fi

European urban history is a very lively and dynamic field at the present time. Of major concern in the current research and debate is the role of cities in the process of economic, social and cultural innovation. There is a strong case for arguing that the innovativeness of European society since the Renaissance has been driven by cities through the complex dynamic of urban structures, resources and traditions. This encompasses the mentality of city people, developed institutions, buildings and support services, such as transport and communication which all belong to the so called “hard infrastructure.” A so called “soft infrastructure” consists of various kinds of social networks in the form of informal groups, clubs and common interest networks. A central interest of this session would be to ask why certain cities at particular times- for instance North Italian cities in the Renaissance, Antwerp in the 16 century, London in the 18th century, Berlin in the early 20th century and Helsinki in the late 20th century are especially innovative. What are the factors that promote an innovative environment? Education? Ethnicity? Internationalization or nationalism? Another area for analysis might be the link between crisis and innovation – how far major upheavals in existing conditions provide a stimulus for new ideas. The interest of the session is less with innovations per se than in the context and generation of new ideas and developments, how they are transmitted between cities and countries, and adapted to suit new contexts, and what their impact is on the host community. Innovation will be treated critically: the costs of innovation need to be considered as well as the benefits.

Joe Brady, University College Dublin Dublin – Managing Growth and Economic Prosperity 1985-2005
Caroline Varlet (EAPLV/EHESS, Paris) L’habitat des élites à Paris: une spirale innovatrice (XVIIIe-XXe)
Luda Klusakova, Charles University Prague Peripheral towns and innovation spirit: case studies from Bohemia and Moravia
Martina Heßler, Historisches Institut der RWTH Aachen Urbanization of innovation. The case study of the Siemens' "Forschungsstadt" in the 1970s
Giacomo Bottà, University of Helsinki Popular Culture and Urban Innovation in Helsinki and Berlin
Pim Kooij, Groningen University 'Where the action is'. The introduction and adaptation of innovations in material culture in an urban setting. The Netherlands 1850-1950
Henry Oinas-Kukkonen, Jouni Similä, Petri Pulli (University of Oulu) Main threads of ICT innovation web in Oulu
Marjatta Hietala, Aulikki Litzen (Tampere University) Comparing old and new towns as seedbeds for science and for innovation in 20th century Europe
Commentator: Herman van Wee (Leuven University)

Location and time: Room 6 Metsätalo building, 25 August 14.00-17.30

The Nordic Countries and the Commercial De-globalization of the Interwar Period

Pål Thonstad Sandvik, Ass. Prof., Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
Hans Kryger Larsen Ass. Prof., Copenhagen University, Denmark
Sven-Olof Olsson, Ass. Prof., Gothenburg University/Halmstad University, Sweden

Sven-Olof Olsson
Section of Humanities
Halmstad University
PO Box 823
SE-301 18 Halmstad, Sweden
tel.: +46 3516 7276
fax: +46 3512 9289
e-mail: Sven-Olof.Olsson@hum.hh.se

Two deficits in much contemporary debate on globalization are, firstly, knowledge about the history of de-globalizations, secondly, the fact that small, open national economies are experienced, globalizers'. They tend to prefer free trade to protectionism and globalization to de-globalization. From this overall perpective the session will focus on the interwar period when small states were squeezed between powerful and, indeed, belligerent large trading actors (states, cartels, transnational corporations). The session aims at improving the understanding of the behaviour of the Nordic national economies under the political economy of de-globalization. The position of the Nordic has been studied from the perspective of the large powers, in particular Britain and Germany (Schröter, Salmon et cet.) Thus the session will concentrate on the aspect of adjustments in terms of governments' commercial policies (tariffs, quotas, finance, payments, FDI, preferential trading policies) firms and corporations' strategies( markets, investments, lobbying) industries and industrial federations (corporatism). Papers will deal with specific issues or specific events but also long-term structural trends.

Part I Chair: Olle Krantz (Umeå University)
a) Monetary policy Comments by Patrick Salmon (Foreign and Commonwealth Office, UK)
Lars Fredrik Øksendal, Norwegian School of Economics, Norway 1931 and all that: Re-examining Norwegian monetary policy
Hans Kryger Larsen, University of Copenhagen, Denmark Danish Exchange Policy and the Trades
Monica Vaerholm, Norwegian School of Economics, Norway The changed role of trade policy in the light of monetary and fiscal policy in interwar Norway
b) Tariffs and trade policy Comments by Harm G. Schröter (University of Bergen)
Jari Kauppila, University of Helsinki, Finland Tariffs in Finland in the interwar period
Sven-Olof Olsson, Halmstad University, Sweden Nordic cooperation and trade policy in the interwar years
Peter Hedberg & Elias Håkansson (Uppsala University, Sweden) Bilateralism and bargaining power: The structure, composition and price trends of the Swedish-German exchange during the interwar period
Part II  
c) Cartels Comments by Sakari Heikkinen (University of Helsinki)
Pål T. Sandvik & Espen Storli (Univ. of Science and Technology, Norway) Big business, market power and small nations: The Norwegian aluminium and nickel industries
Birgit Karlsson, Gothenburg University, Sweden Swedish forest industry and interwar cartels
d) Primary sector Comments by Jens Olesen (Ernst Moritz Arndt University, Greifswald)
Mats Morell, Uppsala University, Sweden De-globalization and regulation of the farm sector. Sweden in the interwar years
Gudmundur Jónsson, University of Iceland The response of fishing industry to the depression of the 1930s: Iceland and Norway compared

Location and time: Room 6 Main Building, 23 August 9.00-12.30

The Informatic Monitoring of the Regular Clergy’s Economic Presence in the Early Modern Europe and American Continent

Fiorenzo Landi, Prof., University of Bologna, Italy

Fiorenzo Landi
Dipartimento di Discipline storiche
Piazza S.Giovanni in Monte 2
40124 Bologna, Italy
e-mail: Fiorenzo.Landi@unibo.it

The national inquiries about the estates of Regular Clergy, to proceed for a confiscation, are an important and homogeneous source to study all the European and American network of abbeys, monasteries and convents. But this source is difficult to analyse because it’s systematic. Everyone of these censuses contain hundreds of thousands quantitative data, relatives to thousand of monasteries, often with great estates and every kind revenues. So we have the necessity to a particular macroeconomic approach, with a cartographical feature that allows to individuate immediately some comparative elements inside the networks of the settlements: placement of institutions in the territory, power relation between Orders and Congregations, economic importance about the composition of the monastic family, and about the incomes and the expenses of each convent or abbey, chronology of the settlements, etc.
About the session 92: the Informatic monitoring of the Regular Clergy's economic presence in the early modern Europes and American continent through the national enquiries, there are no papers of the Components of the research group. The intense activities of the session will be developed in the following manner: 1) in opening the operation of the program Map Point, that was individualized like common tool of representation graphic, will be illustrated. 2) The Members that already had occasion to use the results will illustrate them, about the databases of their areas of search. 3) the other Members will present the database that want to visualize and will be provided to show the transposition of the datas.

Bernard Bodinier, Rouen Univ. (France)
Marcella Campanelli, Napoli, Federico II , Univ. (Italy)
Eduardo Cavieres, Valparaiso Univ. (Chile)
Piotr Pawel Gach, Lublin Univ. (Poland)
Luis Antonio Lopez Martinez, Sevilla Univ. (Spain)
Tito Menzani, Milano Univ. (Italy)
Maria Dolores Munoz Duena, Cordoba Univ. (Spain)
Maurizio Pegrari, Verona Univ. (Italy)
Giuseppe Poli, Bari Univ. (Italy)
Giancarlo Rocca, DIP Roma (Italy)

Location and time: Room 8 Metsätalo building, 24 August 14.00-17.30

US Firms in Europe (from the 1890s to the 21st Century): Strategy, Identity, Performance, Reception, Adaptability

Hubert Bonin, Prof., Institut d’études politiques de Bordeaux, France
Ferry De Goey, Prof., Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Patrick Fridenson, Prof., École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, France

Hubert Bonin
26 rue du Lavoir
33000 Bordeaux, France
tel.: +33 673 990 779
fax: +33 556 844 178
e-mail: h.bonin@sciencespobordeaux.fr

Thanks to the large-scale studies of Mira Wilkins (The Emergence of Multinational Enterprise and The Maturing of Multinational Enterprise) and through several books about the Americanisation of the European economy, we know better the main features of American investments in Europe. Our panel intends to focus on concrete and precise case-studies, either national or sectorial, in order to determine how American companies tailored their insertion into European nations and markets, how they “conceptualised” their European development and tried to get their subsidiaries or sister companies “Europeanised”. The whole range of economic history’s notions and methods, some aspects of cultural studies (about cultural aspects of management), the analysis of firms’ strategies and several aspects of industrial relations will be mobilised for this session.

Alain Beltran (Institut d’histoire du temps présent-IHTP, Paris) The case of US oil companies in France
Hubert Bonin (Université Montesquieu-Bordeaux 4) Equipment goods and mass brands American business spreading modernity into France? Strategies, identity and perception (from the 1940s to the 1980s)
Sophie Chauveau (Université de Lyon 3) & Viviane Quirke (Brookes University) The American 'model' and the British and French pharmaceutical industries in the twentieth century
Andrea Colli (Bocconi University) & Emanuela Scarpellini (Universita degli Studi, Milano) Investing in a developing economy: US and European direct investments in Italy during the "economic miracle" (1950-1970)
Ferry De Goey (Erasmus University Rotterdam) & Ben Wubs (OGC - Utrecht University) US Multinationals in the Netherlands in the 20th Century: "The Open Gate to Europe"
Thomas Fetzer (European University, Florence) The reception of General Motors and Ford by European labour unions, especially in Great Britain and Germany
Patrick Fridenson (Ecole des Hautes études en sciences sociales) The case of automobile and consumer electronics in France, 1892-1992
Andrew Godley (Reading University) American Multinationals and Innovation in British Retailing, 1850-1962
Thierry Grosbois (Université libre de Bruxelles) La stratégie de Ford à l'égard de l'intégration européenne
Enrique de Miguel Fernandez (Univ. Politechnica de Valencia) & Vicente Sanz Rozalén (Jaume I de Castellón Univ.) US Investments in Spain (1898-2005)
Margrit Müller (Universität Zurich) The case of US companies in Switzerland
Irina Potkina (Institute of Russian History, Russian Academy of Sciences) The Singer Company in Russia, 1897-1917: strategy, identity, performance, reception, adaptability.
Boris Shpotov (Institute of World history, Russian Academy of Sciences) The Ford Motor Company in the Soviet Union in the 1920s-1930s: Strategy, identity, performance, reception, adaptability
Peter Sørensen (Aarhus School of Business) American investments in Denmark 1958, 1965 and 1972
Suzanne Hilger (University of Dusseldorf) American Firms in Germany. The Case of Procter & Gamble and the Transfer of American Marketing Strategies after World War II
Mira Wilkins (Florida International University) Discussant I: The US point of view
Steven Tolliday (Leeds University) Discussant II: The European point of view

Location and time: Aud XV Main Building, 24 August 14.00-17.30

Foreign Companies and Economic Nationalism in the Developing World after World War II

Rory Miller, Dr., University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
Nicholas White, Dr., Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom
Aron Shai, Prof., University of Tel-Aviv, Israel

Rory Miller
University of Liverpool Management School
Chatham Building
Liverpool L69 7ZH, United Kingdom
tel.: +44 151 795 3816
fax: +44 151 795 3007
e-mail: r.m.miller@liv.ac.uk

Economic nationalism, in various forms, spread rapidly across the developing world in the forty years after the Second World War, paradoxically at a time when foreign direct investment, especially through the vehicle of US and European (and later Japanese) multinational companies, was also growing rapidly. Businesses rapidly had to adapt to a new and more problematic environment where the value of foreign investment and foreign control of key economic sectors and markets was frequently questioned, even though most non-Communist governments needed the capital, skills and technology that multinational companies could provide. The confrontation between local politicians and foreign firms reached all parts of the developing world. Our intention is to utilise the opportunities provided by the recent opening of government and particularly corporate archives, in order to reassess the meanings, content, and significance of economic nationalism and the responses of foreign companies and governments. Papers will cover a range of home countries and companies, as well as all the major regions of the developing world: Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
For the abstracts for these papers please see www.liv.ac.uk/~rory/ieha-panel94.doc

Part I Chairs: Nich White and Aron Shai
Valerie Johnson (BP History Project) Sowing the Seeds of Nationalism: empire, culture and British business
Robert Greenhill (London Metrpolitan University) Economic Nationalism in the Developing World: the case of maritime transport after World War II
Larry Butler (University of East Anglia) Mining, Nationalism, and Decolonization in Zambia, 1945-1964
Stephanie Decker (London School of Economics) From Decolonisation to Expropriation: British business in Nigeria and Ghana, 1945 to 1977
Thomas F. O’Brien (University of Houston) Modernization, Multinationals and the American State: adapting to Third World nationalism in Latin America
Marcelo Bucheli (University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign) Confronting the Octopus: United Fruit, Standard Oil, and the Colombian State in the Twentieth Century
Rory M. Miller (University of Liverpool) British Firms and Populist Nationalism in Post-War Latin America
Part II Chair: Rory Miller
Aron Shai (University of Tel Aviv) Economic Nationalism and Nationalisation: the fate of foreign firms in China in the 1950s
Anthony P. D’Costa (University of Washington) Economic Nationalism in Motion: steel, auto, and software Industries in India
Sue Martin (University of Hertfordshire) European Plantation Firms and Malaysia’s New Economic Policy since 1970
Shakila Yacob (University of Malaysia) Open Terrain: The Impact of the New Economic Policy on US Foreign Direct Investment in Malaysia
Nicholas J. White (Liverpool John Moores University) Surviving Sukarno: British Firms in Post-Colonial Indonesia, c. 1950-c. 1967
Mira Wilkins (Florida International University Closing remarks

Location and time: Room 6 Main Building, 21 August 14.30-18.00

Evolutionary Theories of Long-Run World Economic History: The Theory/History Interconnection Re-examined

Leonid Borodkin, Prof., Moscow State University, Russia
Christopher Lloyd, Prof., University of New England, Australia
Rolf Walter, Prof., University of Jena, Germany

Christopher Lloyd
School of Economics
University of New England
Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia
tel.: +61 2 6773 3156
fax: +61 2 6773 3596
e-mail: Chris.Lloyd@une.edu.au

This session will be devoted to the analysis of and uses of theoretical approaches to long-run economic history that employ evolutionary and/or systems theory. Many of the theories that are used in economic history concentrate too much on short term change measured in decades rather than in centuries and millennia and are inadequate in their historical explanatory power. Long-run theorising is necessary to see the deepest forces at work in world history. We are wishing to have papers that discuss and use applied evolutionary theory to highlight how such theory can illuminate long-run historical processes and how historical analysis can lead to improved theories. Papers will be sought that use and examine this theory/history interconnection to highlight and improve long-run historical explanation. Neo-Darwinian and other kinds of evolutionary theories are now quite common in social science but we believe there is much work to be done in the explication, analysis, and development of their usefulness in explaining long-run history of economies and societies. Several approaches to evolutionary economics and the links of these approaches to methodological understandings of economic ontology (such as critical realism) are being debated. But these theories and methodologies are often developed in abstraction from historical data and historical understanding and it is therefore necessary to evaluate them and modify them through research into and knowledge of very long-run historical processes. Economic theorists are often not best placed to undertake this task and so history does not sufficiently inform their work. The explanation of real history should be the task of theory construction and application.

Part I  
Weisdorf, Jacob (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) A Taste for Toil: Natural Selection at the Dawn of Agriculture
Myrdal, Janken (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden) The Great Experiment 10.000 BC – AD 1.500
Korotayev, Andrey (Russian State U.) & Malkov, Artemy & Khaltourina, Daria (Russian Academy of Sciences) A Mathematical Model of the World System Demographic, Economic, Technological and Cultural Growth
Nazaretyan, Akop (Institute of Oriental Studies, Russia) Technology and Psychology: The Hypothesis of Techno-Humanitarian Balance
Bondarenko, Dmitri (Center for Civilizational and Regional Studies, Russia) The Relationship of Subsistence Economy’s Evolution to Socio-Cultural and Political Evolution of the Bini Society, 1st Millennium B.C. – 19th Century A.D.
Part II  
Walter, Rolf (University of Jena, Germany) History as an Open System. What about Complexity in Economic History?
Peltonen, Matti (University of Helsinki, Finland) The "Weber Thesis" and Economic Historians: The Reception of Max Weber’s Essay on The Protestant Ethic and the ‘Spirit’ of Capitalism Among Economic and Social Historians
Lloyd, Christopher (University of New England, Australia) Towards An Evolutionary Realist Explanation of Economic Regimes: A Critique of the Orthodox History of Economic Development
Pepelasis Minoglou, Ioanna (Athens U. of Economics, Greece) & Ioannides, Stavros (Panteion U., Greece) Explaining the longevity of market-embedded clans: the case of Greek shipping
Collantes, Fernando (University of Zaragoza, Spain) The evolution of rural provisioning institutions in an industrialising economy: peasants and capitalism in twentieth-century Spain

Location and time: Room 12 Metsätalo building, 24 August 14.00-17.30

Corporate Governance in Historical Perspective

Colleen Dunlavy, Prof., University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
Christopher Kobrak, Prof., European School of Management, France
Robin Pearson, Dr., University of Hull, United Kingdom

Colleen Dunlavy
Department of History
University of Wisconsin
455 North Park Street
Madison, WI 53706, USA
tel.: +1 608 263 1854
fax: +1 608 257 1408
e-mail: cdunlavy@wisc.edu

Although the importance of "corporate governance"—that is, methods of distributing power among the stakeholders in a corporation—has been affirmed by a recent rash of corporate scandals in the U.S., its history remains largely unexplored. Except for a few legal scholars, historians have had little to say about changes in corporate governance over time or about variations across national borders. Now, however, signs are emerging of quickening interest among historians. This session aims to bring together interested historians from around the world to share their findings, to assess the current state of research, and to outline future avenues of research. Questions to be addressed will likely include the following:
1. What elements of corporate governance—e.g., the rights of shareholders, the powers of boards of directors—have been salient at different moments or in different countries? 2. How has the governance of corporations compared with the governance of unincorporated joint stock companies? 3. How have the governance rights of women shareholders and government regulation of governance changed over time or varied across countries, and why? 4. What forces—political, economic, social—have shaped these processes of change, and what have been the consequences of different systems of corporate governance?

Part I Nineteenth to early twentieth century
Chair: Colleen Dunlavy (University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA)
Commentator: Robin Pearson (University of Hull, UK)
Maria Teresa Ribeiro de Oliveira (Universidade de Brasilia, Brazil) The evolution of corporate law and the textile industrialisation of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in the nineteenth century: a re-assessment
Carsten Burhop and Christian Bayer (University of Münster, Germany) Corporate Governance and Incentive Contracts: Historical Evidence from a Legal Reform
Christopher Kobrak (European School of Management, France) and Jeffrey Fear (Harvard Business School, USA) Origins of German Corporate Governance and Accounting 1870-1914: Making Capitalism Respectable
Part II Twentieth century
Chair: Colleen Dunlavy (University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA)
Commentator: Thomas David (Université de Lausanne, Switzerland)
Stephen Morgan (University of Melbourne, Australia) Social networks, business associations and the governance of Chinese firms, c. 1930
Martin Lüpold (Universities of Zurich and Lausanne, Switzerland) Protecting insiders against foreigners? Corporate governance in three small states: Switzerland, Sweden, and the Netherlands, 1900-1960
Hans J. Verhoosel (Leeds University, UK) Strategy and Stakeholder Power Corporate Governance in the post-war Belgian steel industry

Location and time: Room 15 Main Building, 25 August 14.00-17.30

Settler Economies in World History

Christopher Lloyd, Prof., University of New England, Australia
Jacob Metzer, Prof., Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Richard Sutch, Prof., University of California Riverside, USA

Christopher Lloyd
School of Economics
University of New England
Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia
tel.: +61 2 6773 3156
fax: +61 2 6773 3596
e-mail: Chris.Lloyd@une.edu.au

Settler societies and thus settler economies were created through a process of large-scale migration from well-established states to land-abundant, previously unorganized regions. Typically they emerged as hybrid societies, growing out of the encounter of immigrants with the inhabitants in the locations of settlement and influenced by the social background of the immigrants themselves. The settler economies also differ in structure from those of the country of origin since they were necessarily shaped by the immigrants’ accommodations to their new geographical and natural environment and their interaction with the world through international trade. The settler economies of the modern era – such as those of Argentina, Australia, Canada, the United States, the Jewish community of pre-statehood Palestine, and other areas in Latin America, Oceania, Siberia, and eastern and southern Africa – were drawn largely from the population of European states. But, settler economies are a recurring phenomenon in world history from ancient times. Other examples of settler economies may be Iceland, Siberia, French Northern Africa (primarily Algeria), the British colonization of Ireland, and perhaps intra-European cases such as the Prussian colonization in Slavic territories in the eighteen and nineteenth centuries. It may likewise be suggested that the eastward expansion of medieval Europe, the southern and western expansion of medieval China, and even colonization in the ancient Mediterranean world could be fruitfully studied under the settler economy framework.
No more space for papers exists but we wish to hear from others interested in the topic from the point of view of the proposed volume, particularly from those interested in settler societies in the Pacific Islands, Central Asia, Siberia, medieval and early modern Europe and Asia, and the ancient world.

Part I General Themes and Overviews
Lloyd, Christopher (Univ. of New England, Australia) & Metzer, Jacob (Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Israel) Settler Colonization and Societies in History: Patterns and Concepts
Carter, Susan & Sutch, Richard (Univ of California Riverside, USA) Dynamics of Growth in Settler Economies
Engerman, Stanley L. (Rochester Univ., USA) & Sokoloff, Kenneth L. (Univ. of California Los Angeles, USA) Five Hundred Years of European Colonization: Inequality and Paths of Development
Bértola, Luis & Willebald, Henry (Univ de la República, Uruguay) Distribution, Structural Change and Economic Performance in Settler Societies, 1870-2000
Metzer, Jacob (Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel) Atypical Settler Colonization in Modern Times: Jews in Mandatory Palestine and Other Cases
Part II Trade, Labour, Agriculture and Ecology
McKenzie, Francine (University of Western Ontario, Canada) Trade Ties Between Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Britain, 1920-1973: The End of the Settlement Era
Rooth, Tim (Portsmouth University, UK) International Trade and Investment of the Settler Economies During the Twentieth Century: Argentina, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa
Shanahan, Martin & Wilson, John K. (University of South Australia) The impact of variation in leisure time and returns to skill on wage data: A comparison of selected settler economies between 1870 and World War I
Shepherd, James (Whitman College, USA) The Settlement and Agricultural Development of Wheat-Producing Areas in Australia and the Pacific Northwestern United States
Dingle, Tony (Monash University, Australia) Markets and Ecological Transformations: The Case of Australian Exports to Britain in the Nineteenth Century
McInnis, Marvin (Queen’s University, Canada) Irrigated Agriculture in Settler Economies
Part III Indigenous Impacts and Migrations
Beck, Roger (Eastern Illinois University, USA) Commerce and/or Christianity: British Settler Economies and the Great Debate
Sleeper-Smith, Susan (Michigan State University, USA) Negotiating Divergent Economic and Social Systems in Seventeenth and Eighteenth-Century North America: Women and the Fur Trade
Wishart, David & Ankrom, Jeff & Zorick, Wendy H. (Wittenberg University, USA) Settling Cherokee Georgia: Land Grab, Gold Rush, or Both?
Ward, Tony (Brock University, Canada) The First Twenty Years of the Treaties: Aboriginal Economic Development In New Zealand and Canada
Carlson, Leonard A. (Emory University, USA) Does a Common Heritage Lead to Similar Results? United States Indian Policy and Australian Policy Towards Aboriginal Peoples in the first half of the Twentieth Century
Mosk, Carl (University of Victoria, Canada) A Tale of Three Island Frontiers: Japanese Migration to Hokkaido, Hawaii and Vancouver Islands
Part IV Comparative Convergences and Divergences
Gallo, Andres (Univ. of North Florida, USA) Argentina-Australia: Growth and Divergence in the 20th Century
Mitchell, Andrew (London School of Economics, UK) Institutions and Factor Endowments? Income Taxation in Argentina and Australia
McAloon, Jim (Lincoln University, New Zealand) The State and Economic Development in Australia and New Zealand 1945-84
Verhoef, Grietjie & Jones, Stuart (Johannesburg University, South Africa) Financial Intermediaries in Settler Economies: the Role of the Banking Sector Development in South Africa, 1850-2000
Lützelschwab, Claude (SOAS, UK) Settler Colonial Economies in Africa

Location and time: Room 5 Main Building, 25 August 9.00-12.30 and 14.00-17.30

Economic Relations between Empires and Borderlands in the 19th and Early 20th Century

Yuri Petrov, Prof., Central Bank of Russia, Russia
Antti Kuusterä, Dr., Bank of Finland/University of Helsinki, Finland

Antti Kuusterä
Bank of Finland
PO Box 160
FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland
tel.: +358 10 2238
fax: +358 10 8312735
e-mail: antti.kuustera@bof.fi

In the 19th century Europe there were three major empires, all of which disintegrated after the First World War: Russia, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire. These empires consisted of countries or regions with differing economic characteristics and varying political status. The expansion of empires had created different kinds of "borderlands" of with varying kinds of autonomy and dependence on the empire. This session aims at discussing economic relations between empires and borderlands in the 19th century Europe (until the First World War). The themes to be discussed are as follows: How were the economic relations between empires and borderlands organized? Did the empires try to integrate borderlands economically to the empires? Did the empires allow borderlands / autonomic areas freely develop their own economic institutions and economic policy? Did development initiatives of autonomic areas come from the empires or from the borderlands? Did the empires see the development of the borderlands as benefit or as a threat? How did the empire / borderland –relationship affect economic development of empire and borderland?

Part I Chair: Antti Kuusterä (Finland)
Andrea Komlosy, Universität Wien (Austria) Habsburg Borderlands: a Comparative Perspective
Mika Arola, University of Helsinki (Finland) Credit risk associated to the central government of Finland and the “Russian premium”, 1863–1938
Boris Ananich, Institute of Russian History St.Petersburg (Russia) Finance and Politics. Foreign Loans in Russia’s Economy
Yuri Petrov (Central Bank of Russia) & Sofia Salomatina (Moscow State University) Russian and Finnish Central Banks before 1917: a comparative perspective
Jacek Kochanowicz, Warsaw University/Central European University (Poland) The Polish Kingdom: a Periphery as a Leader
Piotr Franaszek, Uniwesytet Jagiellonski Krakow (Poland) On the Outskirts of the Empire – the Policy of Central Authorities Towards the Economic Problems of Galicia
Part II Chair: Mika Arola (Finland)
Andrei Volodin, Moscow Lomonosov State University (Russia) Labour Law in Imperial Perspective (Ivan Yanzhul and Russian Factory Inspection)
Leonid Borodkin, Moscow State University (Russia) Commentary

Location and time: Room 8 Metsätalo building, 23 August 14.00-17.30

Foreign Trade and Economic Growth in Latin America and the Caribbean until the Mid-twentieth Century: Towards a System of National Accounts

Albert Carreras, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain
André Hofman, ECLAC - Santiago de Chile, Chile
Sandra Kuntz, El Colegio de México, Mexico
Xavier Tafunell, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain
César Yáñez, Universidad de Barcelona, Spain

César Yáñez
Departamento de Historia Económica
Universidad de Barcelona
Diagonal 696, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
tel.: +34 934035859
fax : +34 932804250
e-mail: cesar.yanez@ub.edu

The estimation of historical national accounts for Latin American and Caribbean (LA&C) countries until the mid-twentieth century, when official national accounting started in most countries, is in urgent need of mobilization of new data and methods. A lot of what has been done until now has relied heavily on export trade performance. The assumption was that exports provided an important part of income of the LA&C economies. There are limits to this approach: our knowledge of the economic performance of Latin American and Caribbean economies before the Second World War –and even in the post second world war years- falls short to the current international standards. We propose to switch the attention to the import side of foreign trade as each imported item has a precise –although yet unknown- relationship with domestic income –private consumption or capital formation. We invite to present original research on the relationship between foreign trade (exports and/or imports) and economic growth for the Latin American and Caribbean countries before the start of official national accounting. Both the exports and the imports of the countries of the region and their main trade partners could be used for this purpose, although we invite to pay especial attention to the LA&C import side. Preference will be given to research addressing the whole region, although national or regional studies are also invited. Data expected could possibly range from total volume and value of trade to the evolution of one single product over time.

Part I Energy
César Yáñez (U.Barcelona), Mar Rubio (U.Pompeu Fabra) & Albert Carreras (U.Pompeu Fabra) Economic Modernisation in Latin America and the Caribbean between 1890 and 1925: A view from the Energy Consumption
José Jofré (U.Barcelona) Patrones de consumo aparente de energías modernas y actividad económica en América Latina durante el siglo XX
Mauricio Folchi (U.de Chile/U.P.F.) & Mar Rubio (U.P.F.) El consumo de energía fósil y la especificidad de la transición energética en América Latina, 1900-1930
Anna Carreras Marín (U.B.) & Marc Badia (U.B.) Trading with the Caribbean: An Economic Geography of Coal, 1890-1930
Frank Notten (U.P.F.) La transición energética en Costa Rica y sus consecuencias, 1911-1929
Reto Bertoni (U. de la República) & Carolina Román (U. de Barcelona) Estimación y Análisis de la EKC ara Uruguay en el siglo XX
José Jofré (U.B.) La industria azucarera, el bosque y la transición energética cubana (desde el siglo XVIII hasta mediados del siglo XX)
Part II Trade
Mar Rubio (U.P.F.) Protectionist but globalized? Latin American custom duties and trade during the pre-1914 belle époque
Sandra Kuntz (El Colegio de México) Imports and economic modernization in Mexico, 1870-1929
Xavier Tafunell (U.P.F.) En los orígenes de la ISI: la industria del cemento en Latinoamérica, 1900-1930
César Yáñez (U.B.) & Marc Badia (U.B.) Cuando América Latina y el Caribe consumía solamente automóviles importados, 1902-1930
Albert Carreras (U.P.F.) Latin American and Caribbean imports in the first half of the Twentieth century: institutional and economic consequences
Carolina Román (U.B.) Estimación de una función de demanda de bienes de consumo duradero en América Latina 1890-1913
Chair: André Hofman (ECLAC)
Commentators: Alan Dye (Columbia U.), Angus Maddison (OECD), Paolo Riguzzi (Colegio Mexiquense), Antonio Tena (U. Carlos III), Jonathan Brown (U. of Texas at Austin), Anna Maria Aubanell (U. Autónoma de Barcelona)

Location and time: Room 15 Main Building, 25 August 9.00-12.30

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European Business Performance in the 20th Century

Franco Amatori, Prof., Bocconi University, Italy
Youssef Cassis, Prof., Université de Genève, Switzerland
Camilla Brautaset, Dr., University of Bergen, Norway

Camilla Brautaset
Historisk institutt
Universitetet i Bergen
HF-bygget, Sydnespl. 7
N-5007 Bergen, Norway
e-mail: camilla.brautaset@hi.uib.no

A historical and comparative analysis of European business performance is still badly needed. Performance should be at the heart of business history, yet this is not the case. Business performance should also help better understand economic performance at a macro-economic level. In this session we would like to address these crucial lacunas in European economic and business history. We will do so by presenting the findings from a European interdisciplinary project. In 2006 the project will have been running for 5 years. It is based at the London School of Economics, where the Leverhulme Trust has financed the first three years of the project. The objective of the project is to test the validity of a number of explanatory variables of economic performance through the empirical analysis of the performance of a sample of companies from eight European countries (Belgium, Britain, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Sweden). The analysis is based on a sample established for three year periods centring on five benchmark years from 1911 to the start of the new Millenium.

Part I Chair: Terry Gourvish (LSE, UK)
Youssef Cassis (Switzerland) General introduction
Franco Amatori (Italy) National Experiences (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom)
Simon Ville (Univ. of Wollongong, Australia) Australian business performance
Part II Chair: Harm Schröter
Camilla Brautaset (Norway) Changes in economic gravity
Toni Pierenkemper (Univ. of Cologne, Germany) & Frans Buelens (Univ. of Antwerp, Belgium) The old industries
Albert Carreras and Anna Maria Aubanell Jubany (Univ. Pompeu Fabra/Univ. of Barcelona, Spain) The utility industries
Riitta Hjerppe (Finland) & Peter Wardley (UWE Bristol, UK) The knowledge economy
Riitta Hjerppe (Finland) & Mats Larsson (Sweden) Growth and profits in Swedish and Finnish big business during the 20th century

Other participants:
Carlo Brambilla, Bocconi University, Milan
Colli, Andrea, Bocconi University, Milan
Anne Dalmasso, University of Grenoble 2
Diane Dammers, University of Cologne
Greta Devos, University of Antwerp
Hendrik Fischer, University of Cologne
Janne Itkonen, University of Helsinki
Andrea Lorenz-Wende, University of Helsinki
Francesca Polese, Bocconi University, Milan
Xavier Tafunell, University Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
Hans Willems, University of Antwerp

Location and time: Aud XV Main Building, 22 August 14.00-17.30

Cold War and Neutrality: East-West Economic Relations in Europe

Alice Teichova, Prof. Dr., Girton College - Cambridge University, United Kingdom
Dieter Stiefel, Prof. Dr., Universität Wien, Austria
Gertrude Enderle-Burcel, Dr., Österreichisches Staatsarchiv, Austria

Getrude Enderle-Burcel
Österreichische Gesellschaft
für historische Quellenstudien
Österreichisches Staatsarchiv
Nottendorfer Gasse 2-4
A-1030 Wien, Austria
e-mail: oegq@aon.at

Neutrality in history is a neglected subject of historical research. Thus economic historians have so far paid scarce attention to the significance of economic relations between planned economies and market economies of neutral sates in Europe during the Cold War. For instance, although affected by the "Iron Curtain" economic relations continued between socialist countries and neutral Austria, the only state in central-east Europe with a functioning market economy during the Cold War. Austrian neutrality, nourished by geographical closeness and the long common history of central and southeast European countries, was tangential to making the "Iron Curtain" more permeable than is generally assumed. In a similar way, neutral Finland's and Sweden's proximity to the socialist countries of Eastern Europe engendered trade and financial relations between their market economies and the planned economic systems in spite of restrictions imposed by the Cold War. For comparison, the case of neutral Switzerland's and Ireland's economic relations with socialist planned economies under Cold War conditions will be included in the Session's programme.

Part I Austria’s Relations with her Neighbours
Introduction: Dieter Stiefel, University of Vienna
Andreas Resch, Vienna University of Economics Foreign Trade between Austria and the COMECON States after the Second World War
Andrea Komlosy, University of Vienna Austria and the Permeability of the Iron Curtain. From Bridge-Building to Systemic Change
Gertrude Enderle-Burcel, Austrian State Archives Austrian Business Interests in Socialist Neighbouring Countries: Cloaked Companies – KPÖ-related Firms' Eastern Trade
Agnes Pogány (Economics University Budapest) Cooperation through the Iron Curtain. The Economic Relations between Austria and Hungary after the Second World War
  Chair: Riitta Hjerppe (University of Helsinki)/Dieter Stiefel
Summary: Christoph Boyer (Austria)
Part II Business Links between Market and Planned Economies
Jozsef Marjai, Hungary Thirty Years of Economic Relations between Austria and Hungary (1960-1990)
Christoph Boyer, University of Salzburg Economic Relations between Austria and the Soviet Zone of Occupation of Germany/ German Democratic Republic (1945–1973)
Eduard Kubu & Bohumír Brom (Charles University Prague/Central Archives Prague) The Role of Czechoslovak Trade with Neutral Countries in the Period of Escalating Cold War – the Cases of Switzerland and Sweden
Piotr Franaszek, Jagellonian University, Poland The Economic Cooperation of Poland with Neutral European Countries in the Cold War Period
Zarko Lazarevic (Slovenian Academy of Sciences) Yugoslavia: Economic Aspects of the position between East and West
  Chair: Herbert Matis (Austrian Academy of Sciences)
Summary: Bruno Fritzsche (Zurich University, Switzerland)
Part III Business Relations between Industries and Firms
Ludovit Hallon and Miroslav Londák (Slovak Academy of Sciences) Facilities, Forms and Areas of Economic Activities of Firms in Neutral and in Socialist Countries During the Cold War: the Slovak Case
Valentina Fava (University Luigi Bocconi, Italy) Automobiles vs dollars: selling socialist cars in neutral markets. Some evidence from the SKODA- Auto case
Dagmara Jajesniak-Quast (Zentrum für Zeithistorische Forschung Potsdam) Permeating the Iron Curtain with Iron and Steel. Poland, Czechoslovakia, the GDR and the Neutral States
  Chair: Terry Gourvish (LSE, UK)
Summary: Andreas Resch (Vienna University of Economics)
Part IV Economic Policy of Neutral States in East-West Relations during the Cold War
Oliver Rathkolb (University of Vienna) Austria's Neutrality Policy during East- West Warfare 1945/48-1989
Bruno Fritzsche & Christina Lohm (Zurich University) Swiss Economic Relations with the Soviet Union during the Cold War
Till Geiger (Manchester University, UK) Irish neutrality and East-West Trade, 1945–55
Gerard Aalders (Netherlands Institute for War Documentation) WW II and Cold War: Influences on Swedish post-war economy
Pekka Sutela (Bank of Finland) Finland's eastern trade: what do the interviews tell
  Chair: Riitta Hjerppe (University of Helsinki, Finland), Mikulás Teich (Cambridge University)
Summary: Dieter Stiefel
Melanie Aspey (Rothschild Archive, London)
Terry Gourvish (LSE)
Chris Kobrak (European School of Management – Paris, France)
Ragnhild Lundström (Uppsala University, Sweden)
Richard Overy (University of Exeter, UK)
Mikulás Teich (Cambridge University)

Location and time: Room 1 Metsätalo building, 23 August 9.00-12.30 and 14.00-17.30

European Banks in Latin America During the First Age of Globalization, 1870-1914

Carlos Marichal, Dr., El Colegio de México, Mexico
Gail Triner, Dr., Rutgers University, USA

Carlos Marichal
Centro de Estudios Históricos
El Colegio de México
Camino al Ajusco No. 20
10740 D.F., Mexico
e-mail: cmari@colmex.mx

During the "first age of globalization" from 1870 to 1914, European banks were among the most visible and important multinational firms to make their presence felt throughout Latin America. Research on globalization is typically concerned with networks of international exchange. The implications for patterns of local institutional and economic structures have received less attention. Banks offer an interesting opportunity to integrate the global perspective with the local. Banks from many European countries followed export merchants and the earliest multinational or "free-standing" enterprises into Latin America. The banks were instrumental in shaping the commercial and financial systems to support global exchange while also influencing the development of domestic financial institutions within their host economies. They financed international and local trade, facilitated the raising of long-term capital investment (often in European markets), motivated financial policy, introduced organizational innovations and personnel. This session assesses the activities of European banks within specific Latin American economies to develop insights into their business, financial and social implications during the first age of globalization. The papers in this session consider the roles of British, French, German and Spanish banks within the economies of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and the Caribbean. They bring together a wide variety of methodological and theoretical approaches in order to fulfill the goal of the sessions, which is to develop new comparative insights on the importance of international finance and early globalization in the periphery.

For IEHA Congress session 102, the schedule of presentations and links to the papers are available by clicking here.

Part I  
Carlos Marichal (El Colegio de México) The experience of Banamex: French bankers and banking models in Mexico, 1884-1900
Andre Villela (Fundacion Getulio Vargas) & Ignacio Briones (Universidad Alfredo Ibañez) European Bank Penetration During The First Wave Of Globalization: Lessons From Brazil And Chile 1862/1913
Guy Pierre (Universidad de la Ciudad de México) L’implantation et l’ eviction de la banque francaise dans la Caraibe entre la fin du XIXe siècle et le debut du XXe
Andrés Regalsky (Universidad Nacional de Luján, Argentina) French banks in Argentina, 1880-1914
Commentators: Pablo Martin Aceña (Universidad de Alcalá de Henares) & Giuseppe Tattara (Venice University)
Part II  
Luis Anaya (Universidad Autónoma de Morelos, Mexico) German commercial banks in Mexico, 1905-1930
Inés Roldán de Montaud (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas) Spanish Banks in Cuba
Paolo Riguzzi (El Colegio Mexiquense, Mexico) Weak Multinational Banking in LAtin America. The London Bank of Mexico and South America, 1863-1903
Gail Triner (Rutgers University) British Banking in Brazil, 1890-1914
Commentators: Adolfo Meisel (Banco de la República; Cartagena) & Youssef Cassis (University of Geneva)

Location and time: Room 10 Main Building, 21 August 14.30-18.00

New Experiences with Historical National Accounts: Methodologies and Analysis

Pierre van der Eng, Dr., Australian National University, Australia
Debin Ma, Dr., Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development, Japan

Pierre van der Eng
School of Business and Information Management
Faculty of Economics and Commerce
Hanna Neumann building 021
The Australian National University
Canberra ACT 0200, Australia
tel.: +61 2 6125 5438
fax: +61 2 6125 5005
e-mail: pierre.vandereng@anu.edu.au

The integrative work of Angus Maddison offers an inventory of the state of the art in historical national accounting. A lot has been accomplished, but much more research can be done to enhance insights into long-term economic growth and structural change. Various initiatives in historical accounting involving countries around the world are still being pursued; estimates are improved and extended, and entirely new estimates are made where none existed before. As historical national accounting of developed countries covers periods further back in time, constraints on the availability of quantitative economic data require an increasingly creative use of such data. This raises methodological issues that appear to be remarkably similar to those faced in the historical national accounting of developing countries in more recent periods. Consequently, exchanges of views and discussion of methodological issues involved in historical national accounting of different countries can only be mutually beneficial. Hitherto, there have been very few fora to discuss the often creative methodologies that have to be used to arrive at historical national accounts estimates. Generally discussion focuses on results, not necessarily the methods underlying the estimates. This session aims to facilitate such discussion.

  Chair: Debin Ma
Discussant: Leoandros Prados de la Escosura
Jan-Pieter Smits (University of Groningen, The Netherlands) Measuring The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Methodological Issues And New Results
Albert Carreras & Xavier Tafunell (Universitat Pompeu Fabra) Long Term Growth of the Western European countries and the United States, 1830–2000: Facts and Issues
  Chair: Pierre van der Eng
Discussant: Angus Maddison
Stefano Fenoaltea (University of Rome, Italy) The reconstruction of historical national accounts:the case of Italy
Stephen Broadberry (University of Warwick, United Kigdom) Comparative Income and Productivity in Australia and United Kingdom 1861-1948
  Chair: Debin Ma
Discussant: Pierre van der Eng
Ola Honningdal Grytten (Norwegian School of Economics, Norway) Fixed price calculations in Nordic historical national accounts
Nuno Valério (Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão, Portugal) Economic activity in the Portuguese Colonial Empire: a factor analysis approach
Raja Nazrin, Malaysia (delivered by Mr Gnasegarah Kandaiya) Methodology for Deriving the Domestic Private Final Copnsumption Expenditure Series of Malaya, 1900-1939
  Chair: Pierre van der Eng
Discussant: Debin Ma
Toru Kubo (Shinshu University, Japan) Industrial Development in China: a revised index 1911-1948
Mark Spoerer & Jochen Streb (University of Hohenheim, Germany) Re-estimating the consumer price index when prices are controlled: The case of Nazi Germany, 1933-1938
  Chair: Debin Ma
Discussant: Bart van Ark
Leandro Prados de la Escosura (Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, Spain) Assessing the bias in spliced national accounts: evidence from Spain 1958-2000
Rossitsa Rangelova (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia) Experience with different methodologies for accounting national income in Central and Eastern European countries, 1950-1990

Location and time: Room 13 Main Building, 23 August 9.00-12.30

SESSION 104 - cancelled

SESSION 105 - cancelled

State and Finance in the Early Modern Times in the Eurasian Continuum

Irfan Habib, Prof., Aligarh Muslim University, India
Sushil Chaudhury, Prof., University of Calcutta, India
Sevket Pamuk, Prof., Bogazici University, Turkey

Sushil Chaudhury
Department of History
Calcutta University
1 Refractory Street
Alipur, Calcutta 700 068, India
tel.: +91 33 2473 3736
e-mail: sushilchau@rediffmail.com

1. Financial network required for tax-collection and expenditure by the early modern state. Extent of money/kind collection. Need for remittance facilities through bills by bankers/merchants; or by drafts on tax-collectors/tax-farmers.
2. Coinage. Recoinage of metal money collected in tax; and coinage as commercial enterprise of state. ‘Deficit financing’ through alloy-manipulation.
3. State and Private financiers/Bankers. State as lender and borrower. State machinery and the credit system. Degree of influence of financiers over state policy. Laws on interest and insurance.
4. State and finance for overseas trade. Silver influx for overseas trade. Silver influx and customs policies. European Companies and local finance.

Part I Chair: Sushil Chaudhury
Markus van Denzel & Danny Weber (Univ. of Leipzig, Germany) State and Finance in the Holy Roman Empire from c.1650 to c.1800. A Survey
Patrick O’Brien, London School of Economics The Political, Geographical and Administrative Conditions of the Precocious Rise of Britain’s Fiscal State, 1642–1789
Sevket Pamuk, Istanbul Financial Weakness of the Ottoman Government in the Early Modern Era: Some Quantitative Evidence
Gelina Harlaftis & Sophia Laiou, Greece Ottoman State and Aegean Islands: Finance, Trade and Shipping, 18th Century
Kayhan Orbay, Vienna Ottoman Central Administration and War Finance, Late Seventeenth Century
Javier Cuenca-Esteban, Waterloo, Canada India’s Contribution to the British Balance of Payments, 1757–1812
Part II Chair: Sevket Pamuk
Akinobu Kuroda, Tokyo Too Commercialized to Synchronize Currencies: Monetary Peasant Economy in Late Imperial China in Comparison with Contemporary Japan
Sushil Chaudhury, Calcutta European Trading Companies and the Local Credit Market in Eastern India in the Eighteenth Century
Lee Hun-Chang, Korea State and Finance in Early Modern Korea. 1650 – 1856
Ina Bagdiantz McCabe, Tufts Univ. Boston Silver in Iran’s Early Modern State-building
Najaf Haider, JNU New Delhi Currency Depreciation and Monetary Policy of the Mughal State
Ishrat Alam, Aligarh, India The Role of the Shroffs (Money-Changers) in the Mughal Empire

Location and time: Room 12 Main Building, 24 August 9.00-12.30

Postal Networks in Europe and North America since 1600

Richard R. John, Prof., University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
Andrea Giuntini, Prof., Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy

Richard R. John
History Department (M/C 198)
University of Illinois at Chicago
913 University Hall
601 South Morgan Street
Chicago IL 60607-7109, USA
tel.: +1 312 996 8569
fax: +1 312 996 6377
e-mail: rjohn@uic.edu

The recent popularization of the internet has focused attention on the rise of earlier communications networks, including the telephone, telegraph, and the post. Our panel focuses on postal networks, the earliest and most neglected of the three. Postal networks are, in the language of present-day communications scholars, store-and-forward communication media, making them in certain respects more analogous to the internet than the telephone systems with which the internet is often compared. Postal networks have long been "innovation commons" (to borrow a phrase from Lawrence Lessig) to the extent that, like the internet, they have fostered popular access to information in realms ranging from commerce and politics to science, technology, and personal affairs. Yet the character of postal networks has changed markedly over time, as has the kinds of information they have conveyed. Topics that invite exploration include postal administration; scheduling; censorship, surveillance, and privacy; rationales for postal policy; challenges to the postal monopoly; and the shifting meaning of the equal access ideal. To promote the widest possible exchange of ideas, and to encourage transnational comparisons, we have solicited contributions from the period prior to 1800, and from specialists in countries other than Great Britain, France, and the United States.

John Willis (Canadian Postal Museum) The Voice in the Street, the Merchant's Desk and the emergence of the Canadian postal network
Sébastien Richez (Comité pour l'histoire de La Poste (CHP)/Groupe La Poste) About combined postal service: Mail and travellers transport by Poste automobile rurale in France, 1926-1974
Laura Savelli (Università di Pisa) The feminization of clerical work in the Italian Mail Service. 1860-1940
Robert Dalton Harris & Diane DeBlois (independent scholars) The Pre-Victorian Internet: Economic, Physical Measures, and Principles of the United States Postal System in the 19th Century
Muriel Le Roux (Institut d'histoire moderne et contemporaine (IHMC)/CNRS) The History of the Reforms' Management, the case of the French Post Office (1990-2006)
Richard R. John (University of Illinois at Chicago) Postal Networks and American Telecommunications
David M. Henkin (University of California at Berkeley) Mail Culture in the United States: Dating the Postal Revolution
Daniel Headrick (Roosevelt University) British Imperial Postal Networks
Chih-lung Lin (National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan) The British Dynamic Mail Contract on the North Atlantic: 1860-1900
Jan-Otmar Hesse (Frankfurt a.M.) The Revolution of Rural Postal Service in Germany in the 1880s
Wolfgang Behringer (Saarland University) Shrinking space: Postal Networks in Early Modern Europe
Andrea Giuntini (Univ. di Modena e Reggio Emilia) The Italian Postal Network between the Birth of the Ministry and the Fascist Regime
Patrick Joyce (University of Manchester) Technosocial Governance and the British Postal System
Sune Christian Pedersen (Post & Tele Museum, Copenhagen) Spies in the Post Office: Communications, Surveillance, and Sovereignty in Eighteenth Century Denmark

Location and time: Room 8 Main Building, 21 August 14.30-18.00

Economic History and Landscape History: Cultural Landscapes, Subsistence and the Market in Pre-industrial Europe

Chris Dyer, Prof., University of Leicester, United Kingdom
Erik Thoen, Prof., Gent University, Belgium
Dries Tys, Dr., University of Brussels, Belgium

Chris C. Dyer
University of Leicester
School of Historical Studies
Marc Fitch House, Room 25
Leicester, United Kingdom
tel.: +44 116 252 27 65
e-mail: cd50@le.ac.uk

Economic historians should not neglect landscape history (the study of the ‘cultural landscape’ or the ‘man-made landscape’), as they have tended to do since the 1980s. Historical geography has remained an active discipline, and has revived itself with a new, more cultural and less deterministic approach. Archaeology has become more active in the study of landscape, and sites are now interpreted in their landscape context, using scientific analysis of the plant and animal remains of past environments. Also since the 1980s, the landscape is a study object within Environmental history, a relatively new independent multidisciplinary research field studying the relation between men and nature as a whole. These new trends often take work on the landscape away from the social sciences, and this separation is unfortunate. After all, landscape can be seen as an interactive medium with social, economical, cultural and political processes and agencies, instead of just a deterministic physical framework. This session is designed to reactivate the link between landscape history and social and economic history. The landscape provided the context within which society and economy developed, and was in turn moulded by the creative urges of people to adapt nature to their needs, within the limitations of the environment and human institutions. This session proposes to examine: 1. The extent to which the physical landscape determined social and economic structures. 2. The impact of social structures on the cultural landscape, such as settlements, agricultural systems and communications, as for example is suggested by regional comparisons.

Part I Christopher Dyer (Leicester)
Opening: What does landscape history contribute to our understanding of economic history?
  Society and landscape in the dry lands of NW Europe
Chair: Christopher Dyer (Leicester)
Annie Antoine (Rennes 2) The "bocage" of the West of France: a landscape built and used by the men
Erik Thoen (Ghent) & Pieter-Jan Lachaert (Audenarde Archives) The bocage landscape of Flanders and the ‘commercial peasant economy’ of inland Flanders
Richard Jones ( Univ. of Leicester) Selective manuring in the medieval open fields
Mark Page (Victoria County History and Leicester) Marginal landscapes and the medieval English economy
Theo Spek (Netherlands) Landscape and society in Drente during the middle ages
Part II Society and landscapes in the wetlands of NW Europe
Chair: Piet van Cruyningen (Wageningen University, Netherlands)
Dries Tys (Brussels) Historical landscape research and regional institutional history in the transition debate. A case study in coastal Flanders
Tim Soens, Alexander Lehouck, Nele Vanslembrouck, Erik Thoen (Ghent) From a commercial peasant economy towards a commercial economy: landscape and society in coastal Flanders (13th-16th centuries)
Hans Mol (Netherlands) The possessions of ecclesiastical estates and the landscape in Friesland, 1100-1550

Location and time: Room 14 Metsätalo building, 24 August 14.00-17.30

Protectionism, Market Regulations and Free Trade in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Development of the Sugar International Market, 1930-2000

Horacio Crespo, Prof., Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Mexico
Oscar Zanetti, Prof., Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, Cuba
Guy Pierre, Prof., Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México, Mexico

Horacio Crespo
Facultad de Humanidades
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos
Avda. Universidad 1001
Colonia Chamilpa
Cuernavaca, Mor. CP 62210, Mexico
tel.: +54 55 5658 4993
fax: +54 777 329 7082
e-mail: chcrespo@prodigy.net.mx

The debate on protectionism against trade opening as well as the effect of agricultural subsidies applied by developed countries on the economies of developing ones is a hot topic in the political agenda of Latin America and the Caribbean. This discussion has been at the heart of the fundamental decisions on policy-making and on regional economic models since 1930. Sugar, an important commodity in international trade and a critical one for many of the economies of the region, is a fruitful point of entry to study this debate and its implications. The world sugar market has gone through numerous structural changes since 1930. The system founded in the 1930s was based on the regulation of sugar markets through a system of imperial preferences, structured by participation quotas "agreed" in the "world market" or established by American laws in the "American market". This system minimized actual "free trade" operations. Since 1980, this situation based on national political considerations rather than on a strictly economic rationality became highly unstable and hence questioned in the political sphere. Currently is in the process of being radically transformed in the context of the European Union and the United States. The outcome of these negotiations will indeed have an impact on the Latin American region.

Heitor Pinto de Moura Filho (Brazil) Pioneering Multilateralism: the Sugar Agreements. 1864-1934
Horacio Crespo (Mexico) Diplomacia reguladora: Los convenios azucareros internacionales. 1930-1980
Guy Pierre (Mexico) El papel de los mercados preferenciales azucareros en el crecimiento y las dificultades de las economías agroexportadoras del Caribe en el siglo XX
Jose Antonio Cerro (Mexico) Acuerdos especiales, Geplacea y la integración Latinoamericana: el caso del azúcar
Ernesto Cerro & José Antonio Cerro (Mexico) Azúcar en Mercosur: una visión desde Argentina
Heitor Pinto de Moura Filho (Brazil) The Common Organization of the Sugar Market in the European Union at the dawn of the XXI Century. Structure, regulatory instruments and interest
Luis Rodríguez Duhalt El comercio internacional azucarero. Presente y futuro de la agroindustria cañera
Richard A. Sicotte, Alan Dye The Political Economy of the US Sugar Program
Pedro Ramos Os mercados mundiais de açúcar e a evoluçao da agroindústria canavieira do Brasil entre 1930 e 1980: do açúcar ao álcool para o mercado interno
Oscar Zanetti Política cubana en el mercado azucarero internacional. Condicionantes y características

Location and time: Room 12 Main Building, 22 August 14.00-17.30

Back to top

Tools of Trade. The Organization of International Commerce in Late Medieval European Cities

Peter Stabel, Prof., University of Antwerp, Belgium
Jim M. Murray, Prof., University of Cincinnati, USA
Jim Bolton, Prof., Queen Mary - University of London, United Kingdom

Peter Stabel
University of Antwerp
Department of History
Centre for Urban History
Prinsstraat 13 (room D124)
2000 Antwerp, Belgium
tel.: +32 3220 4260
e-mail: peter.stabel@ua.ac.be

The late Medieval period is generally considered as s period of instability in Europe. Maritime trade, however, flourished and replaced to a large extent transcontinental routes. Commercial meeting points profited from such developments, and cities as Bruges, London and Lübeck in Northern, and Venice and Genoa in Mediterranean Europe were able to attract and sometimes even monopolise particular flows through various staple privileges. City governments and urban elites, the rising states, but also the merchants and financiers themselves created new or adapted existing institutions and commercial tools in order to adjust to changing circumstances. This surprisingly complex mix of innovation and continuity stimulated trade in this difficult period, but laid also the foundations of growth in the beginning of the Early Modern Period. This session wants to compare and assess the different tools that international commerce developed in order to organise in an efficient way trade and cut transaction costs. It wants to measure and compare the organisation and infrastructure of gateway trade in cities like Bruges and Venice (efficiency of staple privileges, seasonal fairs and permanent markets, impact of merchant guilds, arbitration and conflict solving capabilities, law merchant and enforcement of contracts) and the ways in which merchants and financiers found new possibilities or changed existing ones in this organisational framework (accountancy, financial techniques, transport, firms, network trade)

Part I Chair: Peter Stabel (University of Antwerp)
James M. Murray (University of Cincinnati, Ohio) Money and its discontents. Trade communities and finance in late medieval Bruges
James L. Bolton (Queen Mary, University of London) London merchants and the Borromei bank in the 1430s: local credit networks and the transfer of skills
Ulf Christian Ewert & Stephan Selzer Bridging the gap: the hanseatic merchants' variable strategies in heterogeneous mercantile environments
Eric Briys & Didier Joos de ter Beerst The Zaccaria Deal: Contract and options to fund a Genoese shipment of alum to Bruges in 1298
Part II  
Job Weststrate (Leiden University) Shifting markets and institutional change: wine trade on the river Rhine, c. 1380-1560
Don Harreld (Brigham Young University) Merchants and International Trade Networks in the Sixteenth Century
Bart Lambert (FWO – Ghent University) Merchants on the margin? The black market in 15th-century Sluis
Francesco Guidi Bruscoli (University of Florence) The settlement of Florentine companies in Bruges in the early 15th century: common strategies and different attitudes

Location and time: Room 8 Main Building, 23 August 9.00-12.30

Countering Containment: East-West Economic Relations and Partnerships under the Cold War

Luciano Segreto, Prof., Universitá di Firenze, Italy
Jacqueline McGlade, Prof., University of Northern Iowa, USA
Jari Ojala, Prof., University of Jyväskylä, Finland

Luciano Segreto
Dipartimento di Studi sullo Stato
Universitá di Firenze
Via Laura, 48
I-50121 Firenze, Italy
tel.: +39 55 2757011
fax: +39 55 2345486
e-mail: segreto@studistato.unifi.it

Re-cast through strategic trade controls, import-export restrictions, and other prohibitive trade measures, East-West economic relations were severely challenged under Cold War containment policies. While estimates of lost business revenues remain difficult to ascertain, government reports starting in the 1950s cited deep and dramatic dislocations in the pre-1939 arrangement of European, Russian and Asian markets and economic relations. Yet despite its impact on post-1945 world trading patterns, as scholar Michael Mastanduno has noted, the economic impact of containment has been "relatively understudied, as well as the long-term consequences of [Cold War economic] regulatory policies By organizing a proposed IEHA session in Helsinki in 2005, the East-West Trade Working Group, an international network of scholars, will present new research that has been conducted in European and American archives, which challenges former preconceptions related to containment, particularly its impact on Western economies, market re-alignments, and business activities as re-ordered by Cold War trade controls. The session will also allow for a joint dialogue and greater networking between the IEHA Panel "Economic Relations, the Cold War and Neutrality: Central and Southeast Europe" presenters and the East-West Trade Working Group, as arranged by Profs. Segreto and Teichova. The panel will also aid in attracting new members to the network for future conferences and publications.

Part I Chair: Luciano Segreto
Luciano Segreto, Jacqueline McGlade and Jari Ojala Exploring the question. East-West Trade during Cold War. General Introduction
Luciano Segreto (Universitá di Firenze) East-West Trade in Cold War Europe: National Interests and Hypocrisy
Jacqueline McGlade (Penn State University, USA) Expand World Trade or Security? The Cold War Economic Dilemma and the West
Part II Chair: Alice Teichova
Niklas Jensen-Eriksen (University of Helsinki) Finland – A Hole in the Cold War Embargo?
P. Franaszek (University of Krakovia, Poland) Foreign Exchange of the People's Republic of Poland in the Years 1945-1980
Robert Mark Spaulding (University of North Carolina) Agricultural Statecraft: Polish Food Exports and Imports in the Early Cold War, 1947-1957
Commentators: Jari Eloranta (USA), Hubert Bonin (France)

Location and time: Aud XIV Main Building, 22 August 9.00-12.30

Government Debts and Financial Markets in Europe, 16th-20th Centuries

Pierre-Cyrille Hautcoeur, Prof., Université de Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne, France
Michael North, Prof., Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universität, Germany
Fausto Piola Caselli, Prof., University of Cassino, Italy
José Ignacio Andrés Ucendo, Prof., Universidad del Pais Vasco, Spain

Fausto Piola Caselli
Facoltà di Economia
Università di Cassino
La Folcara
I-03043 Cassino (FR), Italy
tel.: +39 776 302307
fax: +39 776 302312
e-mail: piola@eco.unicas.it

The aim of the session is to analyse the relationships between government indebtedness and the development of financial markets in the long run. From the Middle Ages, some urban and central governments began to raise money through borrowing more frequently than earlier. Governors had two ways before them: either addressing specialists (money-changers, merchants, bankers) or by involving citizens and taxpayers, who can be considered as forced lenders. The former method was initiated and largely exploited by princes and kings, while the latter was typical of urban governments. The two methods suggest institutions are not entirely responsive to real economic forces but are shaped to a considerable degree by the cultural political makeup of a society. Similarities, differences and interactions between the two systems must be analysed by providing examples from modern and contemporary Europe. Governments bonds became marketable and so they were traded in financial markets. It is likely that the growing efficiency of markets allowed governments to raise ever-increasing quantities of money at moderate cost. With funding for long-term debt markets for government debt broadened and deepened. Furthermore, from the Bank of England onward, different attempts were made to create national financial institutions attracting resources toward government debt. With the growth of a capital market that made government debt liquid, investors became readier to turn away from investment in land as the only safe asset.

Part I Late Middle Age, Chair: Michael North
Andreas Ranft The financial administration of North Hanseatic cities in the Late Middle Ages development - organization - politics
Luciano Pezzolo Government debts, markets and institutions in early-renaissance Italy: between choise and coercion
David Alonso Garcia Government debts and financial markets in Castile between the XVth and the XVIth centuries
Part II Early Modern, Chair: Fausto Piola Caselli
Bernat Hernandez Fiscality, public credit and political money: Catalonia, 1550-1560
Giuseppe De Luca Government Debt and Financial Markets: Pro-Cycle Effects in the Economic Reorganization of Northern Italy in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
José Ignacio Ucendo The relationships between the Crown and urban finances in Castile's Golden Age: the Madrid's case
Carlos Álvarez Nogal The different role played by government debt and bankers in the Spanish Monarchy's finances during the Early Modern Spain
Part III Early modern, Chair: José Ignacio Ucendo
Gaetano Sabatini From subordination to autonomy: public debt policies and the formation of a self-ruled financial market in Southern Italy in the long run (1550-1850)
Fausto Piola Caselli Public Debt in the Papal States (16th-19th centuries). The Role of a Financial Market in the Government Economic Strategies
Anne Dubet The introduction of the "Tesorero Mayor de Guerra (1703-1715)" towards a new system of public credit in XVIII century Spain
François Velde French Public Finance Between 1683 and 1726
Christophe Chamley Callable government bonds and private expectations in England: 1743-1750
Patrick O’Brien Mercantilist Institutions for the Pursuit of Power with Profit. The Management of Britain’s National Debt, 1756-1815
Part IV 19th-20th centuries, Chair: Pierre-Cyrille Hautcoeur
Giuseppe Conti Sovereign debt, sustainability and financial system organization in Italy
Hans-Peter Ullmann Times of Wasteful Abundance: The Apogee of the Fiscal State in the Federal Republic of Germany from the 1960s to the 1980s
  Final remarks: David Stasavage

Location and time: Room 6 Metsätalo building, 23 August 9.00-12.30 and 14.00-17.30

Outsourcing in Historical Perspective: The Trade-Off between Internal and External Expertise

Christopher McKenna, Dr., University of Oxford, United Kingdom
Isabelle Lescent-Giles, Dr., Université de Paris-Sorbonne, France

Christopher McKenna
Said Business School
University of Oxford
Park End Street
Oxford OX1 1HP, United Kingdom
tel.: +44 1865 277845
fax: +44 1865 277831
e-mail: chris.mckenna@sbs.ox.ac.uk

How far can one outsource non-essential functions without putting the company’s existence at risk? The traditional trade-off between "make or buy", famously analysed by Ronald Coase, has been extended to seemingly endless fields, from logistics and call centers to front-office professional services. Yet, this was not always the pattern. In Alfred Chandler's work on the emergence of giant American corporations, he argued that executives sought to internalize an increasing array of activities. Recently, the pendulum has swung to the opposite extreme and corporate critics have begun to question what remains of the "core competence" of the corporation once you've peeled away every layer. Is this the inevitable future (or even the true history of past)? In particular, the session will focus on three key issues: (1) how common has outsourcing been since the first industrial revolution, (2) what are the economic gains versus the dangers of outsourcing, and (3) how does outsourcing work in practice and what can history teach us about it? This session will look at outsourcing (both structural and geographic) as a historical phenomenon in order to go beyond the stylized models of the "Chandlerian" firm of the 1960s and the "virtual corporation" of twenty first century.

William Becker, George Washington University (USA)
Albert Carreras, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (Spain)
Luis Galambos, Johns Hopkins University (USA)
Eric Godelier, Ecole Polytechnique (France)
Leslie Hannah, University of Tokyo (Japan)
Mari Sako, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)
Harm Schröter, Bergen University (Norway)
John Wilson, University of Central Lancashire (United Kingdom)

Location and time: Aud XII Main Building, 24 August 9.00-12.30

A Maritime Girdle of Commerce: Asian Seaborne Trade 10th-13th Centuries

Geoff Wade, Dr., National University of Singapore, Singapore

Geoff Wade
Asia Research Institute
The Shaw Foundation Building
Block AS7, Level 4
5 Arts Link, Singapore 117570
tel.: +65 6874 4562
fax: +65 6779 1428
e-mail: arigpw@nus.edu.sg

The maritime trade routes linking the eastern and western end of the Eurasian continent have been conduits of commerce for at least 2,000 years. In the early centuries of the Common Era, Roman, Persian, Arab, Indian, Austronesian and East Asian merchants traded between the entrêpots which stretched along this "girdle of commerce", connecting what we now know as the Middle East with markets in South and East Asia. With the advent of Islam, many of the major Middle Eastern ports saw increasing direct or semi-direct trade with the ports of Southeast Asia and China. By the 10th century, we have evidence of strong Arab trade networks extending from the Arab lands, through South Asia, the ports of Srivijaya and Champa, into the trading systems which connected the markets around the East China Sea. Over the following four centuries, we can observe a convergence of regional sea trade cycles - in the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean. Together with the mercantilist reforms under the Song dynasty in China, which promoted maritime trade, it can be said that the period saw an Asian trade boom. New polities emerged in Southeast Asia, while the capitals of older states moved nearer to the ocean to profit from tax on trade, the great Fujian port of Quanzhou flourished, some standardised coinage appeared, a broader range of commodities appeared in maritime commerce, more frequent trade missions are recorded, and in various parts of Asia, private consumption replaced public consumption. This session will be examining Asian maritime trade over this key period, looking at the nature, the mechanisms and the periodization of this trade, the impetus for change, the trade routes and entrêpots which emerged, the trade commodities and changes therein, as well as maritime and navigational technologies employed in the maritime trading economy.
For the abstracts please see the following link.

A. The Arab and Persian World  
Maya Shatzmiller Trade with Asia in the tenth century or the lack thereof? The Evidence of the Baltic Sea and Persian Gulf hoards
Ralph Kauz Ports and persons of the Middle East involved in trade with Song China
Seyed Hossain Barshan The Confrontation of the Persian Gulf Commercial Emirates in the Thirteenth Century
B. South Asia  
Sen Tansen The Changing Nature of Maritime Trade between India and China, 1000-1300
C. Southeast Asia  
Fukami Sumio Tambralinga's Long Thirteenth Century and the Southeast Asian Commercial Boom
Kenneth R. Hall Sojourning Communities, Ports-of-Trade, and Agrarian-Based Polities in Southeast Asia’s Eastern Regions, 1000-1300
Geoff Wade An Earlier Age of Commerce in Southeast Asia: 900-1300 C.E.
D. East Asia  
Ching-fei Shih The changes in ceramic trade between China and the Middle East from 13th to 14th centuries
Kent Deng Key Factors for the Growth of China's Traditional Maritime Sector

Location and time: Room 14 Main Building, 23 August 9.00-12.30 and 14.00-17.30

New Approaches to the History of Work

Jürgen Kocka, Prof. Dr., Free University of Berlin, Germany

Jürgen Kocka
Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung
Reichpietschufer 50
10785 Berlin, Germany
tel.: +49 30 25491 501/503
fax: +49 30 25491 514
e-mail: prokocka@zedat.fu-berlin.de

While the history of workers and labour is a well researched field, the history of work is not. One aim of the session is to help structuring the history of work as a field for broad comparative research. Another aim is to present new empirical research in the field. The changing meanings (definitions, boundaries, social and cultural functions) of work in Europe from the early modern to the late modern period as well as in different cultures constitute the central problematique. The session stresses two axes of comparison and entanglement. (I) Continuity and change from the early modern to the late modern period in Europe. On this there will be two general papers by Jürgen Kocka and Josef Ehmer as well as a specialized paper by Jan Lucassen on wage labour, payment forms and coin circulation. (II) In a very selective discussion we would look on Europe and Asia in the 19th and 20th centuries. Sebastian Conrad will compare cultures of work in Japan and Europe. Nandini Gooptu will discuss practices and meanings of work in Calcutta (India), under the impact of globalization. A general comment by Mamadou Diawara, anthropologist and historian, will start the general discussion.

Jürgen Kocka Work as a Problem in European History. An Introduction
Josef Ehmer, University of Vienna (Austria)
Labour History and the History of Work – Differences, Similiarities and Relations
Jan Lucassen, Amsterdam University (The Netherlands) Wage Labour, Payment Forms, and Coin Circulation
Nandini Gooptu, St Antony’s College (United Kingdom)
Practices and Understandings of Factory Work in late-twentieth century Calcutta and the Impact of Globalization
Sebastian Conrad, Free University of Berlin (Germany) Work, Max Weber, Confucianism. The Birth of Capitalism out of the Spirit of Japanese Culture?
Commentator: Mamadou Diawara, Point Sud Bamako (Mali) and University of Frankfurt (Germany)

Location and time: Room 1 Metsätalo building, 24 August 14.00-17.30

A Global History of Income Distribution in the Long XXth Century

Luis Bértola, Prof., Universidad de la República, Uruguay
Jan Luiten van Zanden, Prof., Utrecht University, The Netherlands

Luis Bértola
Facultad de Ciencias Sociales
Universidad de la República
18 de Julio 1968
C.P. 11200, Montevideo, Uruguay
tel.: +598 2 4180956/241
fax: +598 2 4122401
e-mail: lbertola@fcsum.edu.uy

The session will bring together scholars working on the field of income distribution and growth since the 1870s. The purpose of the session is to encourage national and regional studies on income distribution in the long run in order to build an international data base of estimates of income distribution and estimate the long term trend in global income distribution, and finally to discuss the relation between income distribution and growth at a global and regional level. The international discussion on income distribution and growth faces a number of shortcomings. The convergence/divergence debate is concerned with how average income levels of different countries evolved, while domestic changes in income distribution are neglected. Cross-section analysis of international data pairs of income distribution and per capita GDP levels tend to ignore differences in per capita GDP levels between countries. And the debate on the relationship between growth and inequality is still inconclusive, amongst other because of the limitations of the currently available data. Our goal is to construct a global database, which avoids the shortcomings of the above-mentioned methodologies. A recent attempt by Bourguignon and Morrison shows that a lot of work has to be done by economic historians before the results are somewhat satisfactory and reliable. In particular studies documenting the long term development of income inequality in Asia, Africa and Latin-America are still lacking; the session will therefore try to focus as much as possible on these parts of the world.

Part I General papers (Chair: Pierre van der Eng, Commentator: Luis Bértola)
Peter Földvari & Jan Luiten van Zanden Global income distribution and convergence 1800-2000
Leandro Prados Growth, Inequality, and Poverty in Spain, 1850-2000: Evidence and Speculation
Ewout Frankema The Colonial Origins of Inequality: Exploring the Causes and Consequences of Land Distribution
Part II Non-European regions (Chair: Jan Luiten van Zanden, Commentator: Peter Lindert)
Leticia Arroyo Latin American Inequality: the Early Independent Experience
Luis Bértola, Cecilia Castelnovo, Henry Willebald & Eustaquio Reis, An exploration into the distribution of income in Brazil, 1839-1939
Pierre van der Eng & Andrew Leigh Top Incomens in Indonesia, 1920-2003
Part III Europe (Chair: Luis Bértola, Commentator: Jan Luiten van Zanden)
Daniel Waldenström & Jesper Roine The Evolution of Top Incomes in an Egalitarian Society: Sweden, 1903–2004
Jonas Ljungberg Secular Movements in Earnings Differentials. Sweden 1870-2000
Paolo Malanima Pre-Modern Equality. Income Distribution in the Kingdom of Naples (1811)

Location and time: Room 5 Main Building, 24 August 9.00-12.30 and 14.00-17.30

Market Organisation and the Selling of Wines throughout History

David Hancock, Dr., University of Michigan, USA
James Simpson, Dr., Universidad Carlos III, Spain

James Simpson
Dept. de Historia Económica
Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
C/ Madrid, 126
Getafe, 28903, Spain
e-mail: james.simpson@uc3m.es

The purpose of this session is to consider how the organisation of the wine trade has changed over time, how merchants responded to the changing tastes of consumers, and why some wine regions were more successful in developing new markets and remaining competitive than others. Wine is a difficult commodity to transport as it is bulky, can be easily spoilt, and is difficult to classify. Moreover, as a luxury item, wine is constantly prey to shifts in consumer fashions, some of which are prompted by producers, but some of which originate with consumers. Merchants were faced with a number of problems, including the fact that harvests often varied significantly in size and quality, and the development of a successful commodity always brought in its wake the appearance of large numbers of imitations. Historically, a variety of informal and formal methods have been used to resolved problems of asymmetrical information associated with the selling of wine, including personal reputation, state marketing bodies, self-regulation by growers and merchants, and the use of brands. As a result, international commodity chains that link growers with consumers have often looked very different. The organisers of this session expect that most papers will deal with some aspect of the international wine market between 1650 and 1950, but are happy to accept relevant papers on the organisation and responsiveness of long-distance trade for domestic markets, or for different historical periods.

Thomas Brennan (U.S. Naval Academy) The rural wine trade
Henriette de Bruyn Kops (Georgetown University, Washington, DC) The brandy trade as symbiotic motor for the economies of Nantes and Rotterdam, 1600-1650
David Hancock (The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) 'We are all connoisseurs now': producers, distributors, consumers and the rise of an ars bibiendi
Eva Fernández-García (Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla) Brands and the expansion of sherry exports, 1920-1980
Kolleen M. Guy (University of Texas at San Antonio) Marketing Terroir in the 1930s
Joji Nozawa (Université Paris IV – Sorbonne) Overseas market for European wines in the 17th century: The case of Dutch factories at Hirado and Nagasaki in Japan, 1620-1652
Vicente Pinilla (University of Zaragoza, Spain) ‘Old’ and ‘new’ producing countries in the international wine market, 1870-1938
Teresa da Silva lopes (Queen Mary, University of London) Industry Organization and Global Wine Trade
Alessandro Stanziani (CNRS, Paris) Wine labelling in France (19th-20th centuries). Product versus process regulation
Anne Wegener Sleeswijk (Paris) Changing the Market. The Political Economy of the Dutch Wine trade in the Eighteenth Century

Location and time: Room 12 Main Building, 22 August 9.00-12.30

International Petroleum in the 20th Century: The Evolving Interrelationships between Production, Markets, Ownership, Labor and Governments

Jonathan C. Brown, Prof., University of Texas at Austin, USA
David S. Painter, Prof., Georgetown University, USA

Jonathan C. Brown
Department of History
University of Texas at Austin
Austin, TX 787321, USA
tel.: +1 512 475 7218
e-mail: jcbrown@mail.utexas.edu

At a general level, most people recognize that oil has been an important factor in the history of the 20th century. These papers will demonstrate in concrete detail that studying the dynamic interaction between states and markets in the international oil industry provides a new and productive way to understand recent history. The key theme unifying the various papers is the changing relationships between states and markets in the international oil industry. Although states have always been involved in shaping the environment in which markets operate, the role of states has been especially prominent in the international oil industry due to the economic and military importance of oil in the 20th century, the location of oil reserves in politically unstable and geo-politically contested areas, and the structural characteristics of the oil industry. The papers will examine how the interaction between public policies and corporate concerns played out in practice in different areas of the world and in different time frames. All the papers will take an interdisciplinary approach, combining business, economic, political, diplomatic, military, and social history. They will draw on research in public and private papers, a wide range of secondary sources, and the insights of economic analysis.

James H. Bamberg, University of Cambridge Agent or Instrument? BP and the British Government from Churchill to Thatcher, 1914-1987
David H. Breen, University of British Columbia Big Oil, Drilling Concessions and the Public Interest: A Canadian Response
Jonathan C. Brown, University of Texas at Austin Oil Expropriation in Mexico: Market Change, Labor Unions, and Taxation
Marcelo Bucheli, University of Illinois The Standard Oil Company in Colombia and Mexico: Corporate Strategy and Local Politics, 1922-1938
Nathan J. Citino, Colorado State University The Rise of Consumer Society: Postwar American Oil Policies and the Modernization of the Middle East
Angel de la Vega Navarro, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Una comparación entre el ‘Modelo Mexicano de Organización Petrolera’ y el ‘modelo OPEP’ de los setentas
Ann Genova, University of Texas at Austin Nigeria's Biafran War: State, Oil Companies, and Confusion
Francisco J. Monaldi M., Universidad Católica Andrés Bello, Venezuela The Political Economy of Foreign Investment in the Venezuelan Oil Industry: 1920-2004
Tammy Nemeth, University of British Columbia Crossing the Line: The BP-SOHIO Merger and Anglo-American Relations
David S. Painter, Georgetown University Supply, Demand, and Security: The Cold War and the Transition from Coal to Oil
Miguel Tinker Salas, Pomona College Staying the Course: The Business Diplomacy of the Creole Petroleum Corporation in Venezuela, 1930-1958
Fiona Venn, University of Essex, UK Mediator or Scapegoat? Oil Companies and Parent Governments in the 1973 Middle Eastern Crisis
Joseph A. Pratt, University of Houston Exploring the New Frontier in Russia and Azerbaijan: The Experiences of Amoco in the 1990s

Location and time: F211 Topelia building, 23 August 14.00-17.30

Transforming Public Enterprises: Networks, Integration and Transnationalisation

Francisco Comín, Prof., Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Spain
Daniel Díaz Fuentes, Prof., Universidad de Cantabria, Spain
Judith Clifton, Prof., Universidad de Oviedo, Spain

Francisco Comín
Universidad de Alcalá
Facultad de Ciencias Económicas
Pza. de la Victoria 2
28802 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain
tel.: +34 915777909
fax: +34 915755641
e-mail: francisco.comin@uah.es or COMINCO@telefonica.net

Multinational firms and public enterprises are usually perceived as organisations evolving in separate, not to say antagonistic, economic and ideological spheres. During the interwar period and the years following the end of WWII, many firms were nationalised, partly, in order to limit the influence of multinationals over the national economy. In the recent period, privatisation has been accompanied by a significant return of the transnational firm in many national economies. Among them, an important newcomer has emerged: the public enterprise itself. State companies from developed countries compete with private firms to obtain markets or enterprises available through deregulation or privatisation all over the world, especially in the developing world. Their financial and technical background gives them important advantages over the private sector. A new, complex relationship is henceforth being developed between the private and public spheres, in spite the ongoing debate opposing them. Of particular interest to this session are the public enterprises in transnational networks – energy (electricity, gas, etc.), water, transport, communications (post, telecommunications, broadcasting), and other essential services, which have undergone all these transformations.

Part I Experiences from Europe and Russia
Chair: Francisco Comín, Daniel Díaz Fuentes
Harm Schröter When Ugly Ducklings grow up in Germany: Cases from Energy and Telecommunications
Lena Andersson-Skog, Thomas Pettersson Scandinavian experiences of network industries: public enterprises and changing welfare policies 1950-2005
Marina Klinova Transformation and transnationalisation of State enterprises in networks in Russia 1990-2005 with special reference to the energy sector
Synthesis of other European experiences: Belgium: Frans Buelens, Julien van den Broeck & Hans Willem; France: Patrick Fridenson; Ireland: Sean Barrett; Italy: Pier Angelo Toninelli & Michelangelo Vasta; Portugal: Ana Bela Nunes, Carlos Bastien & Nuno Valerio; Spain: Judith Clifton, Francisco Comín & Daniel Díaz Fuentes; UK: Robert Millward
Other European experiences: Austria, Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, Greece and the new EU-10, Francisco Comín & Daniel Díaz Fuentes
  Commentators: Patrick Fridenson, Robert Milward
Part II Experiences from the Americas - and beyond
Chairs: Judith Clifton, Daniel Díaz Fuentes
Judith Clifton, Daniel Díaz, Carlos Marichal Mexico and transnational networks
Pierre Lanthier International activities of three Canadian public electrical companies from 1988: Hydro-Québec, BC Hydro and Manitoba Hydro
Andres Regalsky and Elena Salerno En los comienzos de la empresa pública argentina. Una aproximación a dos casos: la Administración de los Ferrocarriles del Estado y las Obras Sanitarias de la Nación antes de 1930
Yi Ju Wang Taiwanese network internationalisation in Spain
  Commentator: Daniel Diaz-Fuentes

Location and time: Aud XII Main Building, 22 August 14.00-17.30

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Industrial Companies and the Built Environment in the High-Industrial Period

Maths Isacson, Prof., Uppsala University, Sweden
Anja Kervanto Nevanlinna, Dr., University of Helsinki, Finland

Anja Kervanto Nevanlinna
Department of Art History
University of Helsinki
PO Box 3, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
e-mail: anja.nevanlinna@helsinki.fi

The aim of this session is to discuss the relationship between the industrial companies and the built environment during the so-called high-industrial period, a distinct phase during the 20th century when the large-scale industrial model also became the ideal for the whole society. The beginning and end of the period as well as its depth and degree varied in different societies. In industrialized countries, however, the high-industrial discourse extended beyond the economic and technological into other aspects of society, and affected the transformation of cities and the built environment. During the high-industrial period, the industrial companies were an important driving force in constructing the modern society. Planning and efficiency were seen as politically and culturally important both for individuals and for the society. Industrial practices, combined with political ideas and planning, altered social structures, ways of life, worldviews, and values. The future was projected into the vision of an ideal industrial society with the industrial-rational citizens living in their modern urban homes. The modern large industrial company was therefore one of the central institutions of modern society. Possible issues of interest include: Is the concept of high-industrial period, with the efficient industrial model as an ideal for the industrial companies and the society as a whole, fruitful in respect to the developed industrial countries in East and West? How did industrial companies actually influence the built environment? How did industrial companies and the industrial culture construct and transform cultural identities? To what extent was the role of industry seen not only as useful, but also as beautiful, the ideal image for a modern society and contemporary ways of life? What kind of resistance occurred against this rational industrial model and how far did it limit its penetration of the industrial companies and the societies?

Part I  
Maths Isacson & Susanna Fellman The Context of the High-Industrial Periods in the Nordic and Baltic Countries
Asle Rönning Power, Bureaucracy, and Concrete: A corporate headquarter in historical context
Mart Kalm, Marija Dremaite & Andis Cinis Cities of Power: Mono-industrial Towns in the Soviet Baltic States in the 1950s-1980s
Laura Kolbe (University of Helsinki) Commentary
Part II  
Marja Lähteenmäki Diverse Meanings of Industrial Landscape: The Finlayson area in Tampere
Anja Kervanto Nevanlinna Multidisciplinary History: Forms of historical engagement

Location and time: Room 12 Metsätalo building, 23 August 14.00-17.30

Islam and Economic Performance

Avner Greif, Prof., Stanford University, USA
Timur Kuran, Prof., University of Southern California, USA

Timur Kuran
University of Southern California
Los Angeles, CA 90089-0253, USA
Tel.: +1 213 740 2102
E-mail: kuran@usc.edu

This session features eight papers dealing with historical connections between Islam and economic performance. Two of the papers address the role that Islamic institutions played in the development and operation of merchant networks. A third explores why the corporation did not develop from within Islamic law, and a related fourth paper asks whether the nineteenth century saw a jurisprudential shift in relation to commerce. All of the first four papers focus on private economic activity. The fifth through seventh papers turn attention to the state. Two papers deal with various forms of taxation, and another with the use of waqfs as a vehicle for delivering public goods and subsidizing selected activities. The final paper addresses the issue of technological creativity within the early modern Islamic world.

Part I Chair: William Clarence-Smith
G. A. Nadri (Leiden University) Muslim Merchants of Surat and Institutional Bases of their Trade in the 17th and 18th Centuries
Ghislaine Lydon (UCLA) Islamic Practice, Trade Networks, and the Limits of Cooperative Behavior in Nineteenth-Century Sahara
Timur Kuran (University of Southern California) The Absence of the Corporation in Islamic Law: Origins and Persistence
Maya Shatzmiller (University of Western Ontario) Women's Property Rights in Islamic Law and the Debate over Islamic Economic Performance
Part II Chair: Timur Kuran
Metin Cosgel (University of Connecticut) Tax Collection in History: Public Institutions and Institutional Change in the Ottoman Empire
Gadi Gilbar (Haifa University) Muslim tujjar of the Middle East and their Commercial Networks in the Long Nineteenth Century
Kayhan Orbay (University of Vienna) The Economic Efficiency of Imperial Waqfs in the Ottoman Empire
William Gervase Clarence-Smith (University of London) Technological Change in Early Modern Islam, c. 1450-c.1850

Location and time: Room 14 Main Building, 22 August 9.00-12.30

Progress, Stasis, and Crisis: Demographic and Economic Developments in England and beyond AD c.1000-c.1800

Bruce M. S. Campbell, Prof., The Queen’s University of Belfast, United Kingdom

Bruce M. S. Campbell
School of Geography
The Queen’s University of Belfast
Belfast, BT7 1NN, United Kingdom
tel.: +44 28 9097 3345
e-mail: b.m.campbell@qub.ac.uk

Significant efforts have recently been made to measure demographic and economic developments both in the long-run, i.e. since c.1000 AD, and comparatively between countries and regions. Particular attention has been paid to England due to its status as the world’s first industrial nation but also because of the exceptional quality and chronological span of its historical records. The Domesday Survey offers a precocious window onto the English economy in 1086, providing the earliest securely documented historical opportunity to estimate the size and socio-economic composition of the population, calculate the value of the national income, and reconstruct regional variations in economic activity. Against this critical benchmark all subsequent development can be measured. Then, from the 1170s annual price series become available and, from the 1210s, annual wage series, together providing the basis for estimating variations in real wages and the cost of living over 8 centuries. The session aims to review and take stock of this recent research on England, taking due account of medieval as well as post-medieval developments. They will also be evaluated within a wider, international comparative framework, since any conclusions about England naturally bear upon the quickening debate about the degree of convergence and divergence between individual European and Asian economies during the centuries prior to 1800. Rather than commission new papers, the session will focus upon key recent research in print, forthcoming, in the pipeline, and in progress by leading participants in the debate.
In common with all other sessions at the congress, the session will be in two parts of 90 minutes each. To maximise the opportunity for discussion between participants, each part will be in the form of a symposium, led by a chairman with contributions from a team of panellists. The papers will not themselves be presented. Instead, they will be posted in advance on the congress website.

Part I Demographic and economic developments in England c.1000-c.1800
Chair: Richard Smith (University of Cambridge)
Robert Allen (UK) English and Welsh agriculture 1300-1850: outputs, inputs and income
Bruce Campbell (UK) Grain output and population: a conundrum
Greg Clark (USA) Interpreting English Economic History 1200-1800: Malthusian Stasis or Early Dynamism?
Greg Clark (USA) The long march of history: farm wages, population and economic growth, England 1209-1869
Mark Overton and Bruce Campbell (UK) Production et productivité dans l’agriculture anglais, 1086-1871’ (Production and productivity in English agriculture 1086-1871)
Mark Overton (UK) Household wealth, indebtedness, and economic growth in early modern England
E. A. Wrigley (UK) The transition to an advanced organic economy: half a millennium of English agriculture
Part II English demographic and economic developments in context: the wider world c.1000-c.1800
Chair: S. R. Epstein (London School of Economics)
Robert Allen (UK) Economic structure and agricultural productivity in Europe, 1300-1800
Robert Allen (UK) The great divergence in European wages and prices from the Middle Ages to the First World War
Stephen Broadberry and Bishnupriya Gupta (UK) The early modern great divergence: wages, prices and economic development in Europe and Asia, 1500-1800
Stephen Broadberry and Bishnupriya Gupta (UK) Wages, induced innovation and the great divergence: Lancashire, India and shifting competitive advantage in cotton textile, 1700-1850, unpublished research paper
Bruce Campbell (UK) Benchmarking medieval economic development: England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland circa 1290
Philip T. Hoffman, David Jacks, Patricia Levin, and Peter Lindert (USA) Real Inequality in Europe since 1500
Philip T. Hoffman (USA) What sets England apart: English economic and demographic development in world perspective, 1000-1800
Jan Luiten van Zanden (the Netherlands) Cobb-Douglas in pre-modern Europe: simulating early modern growth
Stephan R. Epstein (UK) Transferring Technical Knowledge and Innovating in Europe, c.1200-c.1800

Location and time: Aud XII Main Building, 25 August 14.00-17.30

Famines in History

Cormac O'Grada, Prof., University College Dublin, Ireland
Eric Vanhaute, Prof., Ghent University, Belgium

Cormac O'Grada
Department of Economics
University College Dublin
Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
tel.: +353 1 716 8305
fax: +353 1 283 0068
e-mail: cormac.ograda@ucd.ie

The twentieth century witnessed both some of history's most murderous famines and, arguably, the eradication of famine throughout most of the globe. Some twentieth-century famines were 'traditional' or 'biblical' in their scope and character, while others were the distinctive products of twentieth-century ideologies. Improvements in medical, food, and transport technology influenced the incidence and the demography of famines. More than ever before, local famines became global media events. The organisers invite papers on famine history that pay attention to the comparative dimension across space and over time. Topics of interest include: the changing character of famines in peasant societies; the frequency and demographic impact of famine in the past; markets (for food and credit) and famines; famine relief, public action, NGOs, agency; climate, weather, and famine; famines and socialism.

Peter Gray, Queen's University Belfast The Irish Poor Law and the Great Famine
Peter Boomgaard, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands Famines, Wars, Epidemics, and Weather Patterns in Java (Indonesia), 1600-1900
Meredith Woo, University of Michigan, USA The Political Ecology of Famine: The North Korean Catastrophe and Its Lessons
Eric Vanhaute (Univ. of Ghent, Belgium), Richard Paping (Groningen Univ., Netherlands) & Cormac O Grada, (Univ. College Dublin) The European subsistence crisis of 1845-1850: a comparative perspective
Antti Häkkinen, University of Helsinki 1868 in Finland
Riitta Mäkinen, University of Helsinki The near-famine in Finland 1917-1918: the State Committee for Household Counselling and other consequences
Stephen Lloyd Morgan, Melbourne University, Australia The Welfare Consequences of the Great Leap Forward Famine in China, 1959-61: The Stature of the Survivors
Commentators: Cormac O'Grada (University College Dublin, Ireland), Peter Solar (Vesalius College, Brussels)

Location and time: Room 12 Main Building, 25 August 9.00-12.30

Debates and Controversies in History of Economic Thought

Ma. Eugenia Romero Sotelo, Dr., Facultad de Economía - UNAM (Mexico)
Walther L. Bernecker, Dr., Universidad Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany

Ma. Eugenia Romero Sotelo
López Cotilla Núm. 1805. Col. del Valle
Del. Benito Juárez, México, D. F.
tel.: +52 56221798
fax: +52 56160814
e-mail: meugenia.romero@servidor.unam.mx

This symposium is open to academics who research History of Economic Thought and focus on the study, through history, of public politics' debates and controversies. We aim to bring light on economic thought's historical process and evolution in different societies. Debate and controversy must be the thread by which the paper and lecture are constructed.

Walther L. Bernecker (Nuremberg University) The Debate About Mexico's Economic Development in the XIXth Century
Thomas Passananti (San Diego State University) Debates Surrounding the Recognition and Resumption of the English Debt in the 1880s
Leonardo Lomelí (Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México) The Debate on the Public Finance and the Centralization of the Political Power in Mexico 1896-1900
Mónica Blanco (Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México) A Controversy on the Fiscal Policy in Mexico: Guanajuato's State Opposite to the Central Government, 1877-1911
Ma. Eugenia Romero Sotelo (Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México) The Monetary Reform of 1905 and its Impact in the Mexican Economy. An Analysis of Short Term
Esperanza Fujigaki (Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México) A Monetary Controversy During the Mexican Revolution
Eduardo Turrent (Banco de México) 1955: Fiscal and Monetary Debate in Mexico
Juan Pablo Arroyo Ortiz (Univ. Nacional Autónoma De México) Sprouting of the Liberal State in Mexico. Controversies and Debates
Enrique Cárdenas Sánchez (Centro de Estudios Espinosa Ygleisas) Myths and Fallacies of Mexico's 20th Century Economic Policy
Cristina Puga (Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México) The Debate on Protectionism
Juan Carlos Lerda (University of Chile) Policy advice for economic reform in Latin America: a look from modern behavioural economics
Commentators: Amelia Olmedo Dobrovolny (Embassy of Mexico, Finland), Walther L. Bernecker, Enrique Cárdenas Sánchez

Location and time: Room 7 Main Building, 23 August 9.00-12.30

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Last updated on 22 May 2007