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IEHC 2006

XIV International Economic History Congress

Helsinki, Finland, 21 to 25 August 2006
SESSIONS 41 to 80

International Differences in Economic Welfare: A Long-Run Perspective

Han-Pieter Smits, Dr., Rijks Universiteit Groningen, The Netherlands
Luis Bértola, Dr., University Montevideo, Uruguay

J.P. Smits
Rijks Universiteit Groningen
Economische Faculteit
PO Box 800
9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
tel.: +31 50 363 3758
fax: +31 50 363 3720
e-mail: j.p.smits@eco.rug.nl

In this session we'll try to tackle the problem as to why some regions or countries in the world have been able to achieve high levels of economic welfare and others not. For example: why have many East Asians economies been so successful in achieving high welfare levels while countries in South Asia and especially in Sub-Saharan Africa seem to be caught in a poverty trap? Normally this kind of research is restricted to a tight neo-classical framework, focusing on GDP/caput and explaining variations in welfare from differences in technological capabilities. We want to study this subject in a broader framework. First of all, we don't want to restrict ourselves to GDP estimates, but also focus on welfare issues such as income distribution and environmental damage. Besides, we want to extend the analysis by broadening the capital concept with natural and social capital. Research by the World Bank shows this approach is fruitful. Yet, economic historians still adhere to a (too) narrow capital concept. By including natural and social capital in the analysis we will shed a new light on the discussion as to why the rich countries are rich and the poor countries poor.

Part I Chair: Herman de Jong, University of Groningen
Short introduction by Jan-Pieter Smits
Enriqueta Camps (Univ. Pompeu Fabra), Maria Camou and Silvana Maubrigades (Univ. de la Republica de Uruguay) & Natalia Mora-Sitja (Cambridge Univ.) Globalization and Wage Inequality in South and East Asia, and Latin America: a Gender Approach
Ewout Frankema (University of Groningen) A Theil decomposition of Latin American income distribution in the 20th Century: Inverting the Kuznets Curve
Anne Booth (SOAS University of London) What do trends in wages tell us about living standards? Some evidence from Southeast Asia
Marianne Ward (Loyoloa College Baltimore) & John Devereux (Queens College New York) New Perspectives on International Standards of Living in the Late 19th Century
Leandro Prados de la Escosura (Universidad Carlos III, Madrid) Human Development in the long run: new methods and international comparisons
Part II Chair: Luis Bértola, Universidad de la Republica, Uruguay
Mar Rubio (Universitat Pompeu Fabra) Estimates of Environmental National Accounts for Venezuela and Mexico over the 20th century: accounting for depleted oil
Marta Felis Rota (London School of Economics) Social Capital and Per Capita Income: Testing for a Structural Relationship in the Long Run
Jari Eloranta (Appalachian State University) Warfare and Welfare? Understanding 19th and 20th Century Central Government Spending
Nathan Nunn (University of British Columbia) The Long-Term Consequences of Africa's Slave Trades
Jan-Pieter Smits (University of Groningen) Economic Growth and Structural Change in Sub Saharan Africa during the Twentieth Century: New Empirical Evidence
Commentators: Jan Luiten van Zanden (the Netherlands), Debin Ma (UK), Bart van Ark (the Nehterlands), Luis Bértola, Magnus Lindmark (Norway), (Peter Lindert (USA) and Grietjie Verhoef (South-Africa)

Location and time: Room 13 Main Building, 23 August 14.00-17.30

The Political Economy of Protectionism in the Periphery, 1870-1929

Graciela Márquez, Dr., El Colegio de México, Mexico

Graciela Márquez
El Colegio de México
Centro de Estudios Históricos
Camino al Ajusco 20
D. F. 01000, Mexico
e-mail: gmarquez@colmex.mx

In recent years, the literature on convergence and globalization have found that both industrialized and non-industrialized economies turned to protectionist policies at least from the last quarter of the 19th century up until 1914. For countries in Latin America and the European periphery, fiscal dependence on foreign trade taxes, exchange rate regimes, strategic trade practices, and industrialization programs played a significant role in shaping commercial policy in the period. The political economy of protectionism is then crucial to better understand why protectionism remained deeply entrenched in some economies between 1870 and 1929 in Latin America and Southern Europe.

Part I Graciela Márquez: Overview and introductory
Antonio Tena, Universidad Carlos III Madrid, Spain The good reputation of late XIX century protectionism: manufacture versus total protection in the European tariff growth debate
María Eugenia Mata, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Portugal) & Joseph Love, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (USA) A reversal in the historical role of tariffs in economic growth? The cases of Brazil and Portugal
Marcelo de Pavia Abreu, PUC-Rio (Brazil) & Felipe Tâmega Fernandes, London School of Economics (UK) Market Power and Commodity Prices: Brazil, Chile and the United States, 1820s-1930
Part II  
Roy Hora, Universidad de San Andrés, Argentina La política económica del proteccionismo en Argentina, 1870-1914
Yovanna Y. Pineda, Saint Michael's College, USA The Political Economy of Industrial Legislation in Argentina, 1890-1930
Sergio Silva, Harvard University, USA Apertura contra Proteccionismo en Ambientes Autoritarios: México y España en la Segunda Parte del siglo XX
Graciela Márquez, El Colegio de México, Mexico Explaining protectionism in Mexico, 1870-1930

Location and time: Aud XIII Main Building, 25 August 14.00-17.30

Agricultural Commodities in the Intra-Asian Economy since the 16th Century

A.J.H. Latham, Dr., University of Wales, United Kingdom
Heita Kawakatsu, Prof., International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Japan

2 Church Meadow
Swansea SA3 1AF
Great Britain
tel.: +44 1792 390055
e-mail: A.J.H.Latham@btinternet.com

A major theme to emerge in Asian economic history over the last twenty five years has been the concept of the intra-Asian economy. Rice was one major commodity of intra-Asian commerce. Burma supplied Ceylon and Singapore, Siam supplied Singapore and Netherlands India, and Indo-China supplied Singapore, Netherlands India, the Philippines, and Hong Kong. Hong Kong in turn shipped rice on to China. Even in the Colonial period, this intra-Asian trade continued, regardless of Colonial affiliations. Rice prices across Asia moved together in an integrated way. Many other agricultural commodities were also exchanged on an intra-Asian basis, and the purpose of this session is to examine these as well. Millet and sorghum were major grains in intra-Asian trade, and products such as cassava. There were ancient items like spices and tea, and commodities such as sugar and tobacco. There were industrial raw materials like cotton and gambier, and tree products like copra, from which coconut oil was derived, and there was palm oil. Rubber, and various timbers could also be considered. The incomes these products generated for Asian farmers were the source of demand upon which industrialisation and development was founded.

Heita Kawakatsu A Critique of Wallerstein's Approach
Satoshi Ikeda The Intra-Asian Economy and the European World System
George Sousa VOC Price Current: Asian and European Commodities and Prices in the Long Eighteenth Century
G.A. Nadri The Dutch Intra-Asian Trade in Sugar in the Eighteenth Century
Ryuto Shimada Siamese Trade in Agricultural Products with Japan and China in the Eighteenth Century
Hajime Kose Intra-regional Trade in China: An Analysis of Chinese Maritime Customs Statistics
Masashi Ugai Japanese Treaty Ports and Cross-Cultural Civilizational Spheres in Far East Asia in the Late Nineteenth Century
Masami Kita Scottish Shipping and Asia in the Nineteenth Century
Takashi Kume Inter-Asian Competition in Sugar, 1890-1939
A.J.H. Latham Climatic Fluctuations in the Intra-Asian Rice Trade
Toshiyuki Miyata Thai Jasmine Rice and the World Rice Market: Comparative Studies
Shinsuke Kaneko The Global Wheat Trade and the Industrialisation of Monsoon Asia 1951-2001
Douglas A. Farnie Asian Trade in Raw Cotton
Chisako Tsuji The Cotton Improvement Project in Japan and Korea
Masataka Setobayashi The Cotton Improvement Project in China
Yuko Hisa The Cotton Improvement Project in Turkey
Zhang Li Chinese Raw Silk Output prior 1840

Location and time: Room 7 Main Building, 22 August 14.00-17.30

Identity, Globalization and Universality in the Eastern and Central European Economic Area – Evolutions and Involutions in the Modern and Contemporary Period. Experiences, Meanings, Lessons

Dan Popescu, Prof., Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania

Dan Popescu
Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu
B-dul Victoriei, no. 10
Sibiu 2400, Romania
tel./fax: +40 269 235 879
e-mail: prorel@ulbsibiu.ro

The above mentioned theme seems to me important if we regard it from the perspective of a troubled economic history in this part of Europe and of the world. In this area, especially from an economic perspective, the issue of identity reaching not only once peaks of exacerbated nationalism is directly related to globalization and universality, as they are often a sign of hidden interests and have overlapped generating multiple and contradictory results in the process of development, results yet insufficiently assessed. All these can be analyzed against the present background, the present period, a period of change but also of preserving good traditions, a time when the assessments themselves undergo new approaches and forms, not very different from those of the past, of the "classical" and "neo-classical" ones. How did these problems and approaches emerge, from a historical perspective, in the economic life of a number of states which, have tried and are still trying to be integrated in the European Union, in the Euro-Atlantic structures? It goes without saying that this integration is being conditioned not only by an economic evolution but also by a change in the economic mentality, and it also implies the interpretation, in a different manner, of the set of lessons and national and international concepts. How did the economic phenomena carry on in time, how did it influence the mentalities, and how did they merge, what impact did they have on the economic phenomena? How do such relations proliferate in the future, having in view the basis of the historical discourse? These are all issues, which can effectively shape the outline of a specific panel for the Helsinki Congress.

Dan Popescu, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Romania Cain and Abel in the Balkanian Capitalism "The Long Way" From Ideas and Facts in the Evolution of Romanian Industry (1850-2000)
Andrei Josan, The Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, Romania The level and the structure of the Romanian economy on the verge of World War II
Viorel Roman, University of Bremen, Germany Romania adhesion to the EU
Lucian Giura, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Romania Zur Chronik der Teilnahme Rumäniens am wirtschaftlichen Austausch des RGW
Emilian Dobrescu, “Spiru Haret” University of Bucharest, Romania The seculary influence on the reference interest (rate of scont) upon the economical policies
Corvin Lupu, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Romania Romanian - Jewish relationships during 1940-1944. A reopened and over politicized wound
Maria Muresan, The Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, Romania The Romanians and the European idea in the 19th century
Alexandre Kostov, Institute for Economic and Sociologic Research, Bulgaria Railways and the “Europeanisation” of Balkan economies (1860-1940)
Ileana Take, Transilvania University Of Brasov, Romania Institutional change and economic performance in Eastern Europe
Robert Labbe, University of Rennes 1, France Rereading the thinking of utopian societies and proudhon – reflections of the Balkan region
Iulian Vacarel, Academy Of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania Globalization in the Balkan region: concern or hope?
Dan-Alexandru Popescu, University of Rennes 2, France L'involution économique des Principautés Roumaines à l’époque médiévale. (Étude de cas: la «pieuvre» ottomane)
Gratian Lupu, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Romania Die Rumänisch-Deutschen Wirtschaftsbeziehungen in der Deutschen Presse Hermannstadts von 1920 bis 1929
Jo Bien, University Of Columbia- Missouri, USA The U.S.A and the European enlargement: a historical outlook
Naulko Vsevolod, Ukrainian National Academy Of Sciences, Ukraine The dynamics of the ethnical structure of population of Ukraine during XX century: historical and economic aspect
Eugen Ghiorghita, ASE Bucharest, Romania The permanence of transition in Romania
Sarojini Mishra, Nirod Palai and Kumar Das (India) Experience and impact of globalization in contemporary period

Location and time: Room 10 Main Building, 24 August 9.00-12.30

History of Insolvency and Bankruptcy in an International Perspective

Dieter Stiefel, Prof., Vienna University, Austria
Karl Gratzer, Assoc. Prof., Södertörn University College, Sweden

Dieter Stiefel
Dr. Karl-Lueger-Ring 1
A-1010 Vienna, Austria
tel.: +43 1 4277 413 14
e-mail: dieter.stiefel@univie.ac.at

The session intends to deal with this problem in historical in international perspective from the beginning of modern market economy up to the presence. It wants to include the view of bankruptcy for the law, economics, business administration and its different meaning within the society and the business culture. Finally we want also include case studies for different time and different sectors of the economy. Bankruptcy is a conflict, which is part of the foundations of capitalism, thus we think that it is a topic of great interest in economic history. 2005 we will organize a pre-conference in Stockholm.

Part I Chair: Dieter Stiefel
Jérôme Sgard Bankruptcy Law, Creditors’ Rights and Contractual Exchange in Europe, 1808-1914
Paolo Di Martino The historical evolution of bankruptcy law in England, the US, and Italy up to 1939: determinants of institutional change and structural differences
Karl Gratzer Insolvent Thus a Swindler? The History of Insolvency, Stigma and Imprisonment for Debt in Sweden
M. Teresa Ribeiro de Oliveira Economic policies and bankruptcy institutions: Brazil in a period of transition from colony to an independent nation
Michel Fior Financial Instability in Transition Economies during the 1920s: the European Reconstruction and Credit-Anstalt insolvency
Margrit Schulte Beerbühl The risk of bankruptcy among German merchants in eighteenth-century England
Sakis Gekas Credit, Bankruptcy and Power in the Ionian Islands under British rule, 1815-1864
Part II Chair: Karl Gratzer
Dieter Stiefel Insolvency and Privatisation: The European Transition Economies in the 1990s
Annina Persson Security interest and insolvency – A comparative analysis between Swedish, Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Law
Jeanette Fors A network perspective on bankruptcies, mergers and acquisitions
Philip Ollerenshaw Innovation and Corporate Failure: Cyril Lord in UK Textiles 1945-1968
Mirko Ernkvist Down Many Times, but Still Playing the Game. Creative Destruction and Industry Crashes in the Early Video Game Industry 1971-1986
Richard D. Gritta , Bahram Adrangi, Sergio Davalos & Don Bright A Review of the History of Air Carrier Bankruptcy Forecasting and the Application of Various Models to the U.S. Airline Industry: 1980-2005

Location and time: Aud XIV Main Building, 24 August 14.00-17.30

Diseases and Environmental Changes in Modern Asia

Kohei Wakimura, Prof., Osaka City University, Japan
Wataru Iijima, Prof., Yokohama National University, Japan

Kohei Wakimura
Faculty of Economics
Osaka City University
Sugimoto 3-3-138, Sumiyoshi-ku
Osaka, 558-8585, Japan
tel.: +81 6 6605 2285
fax: +81 6 6605 3066
e-mail: wakimura@econ.osaka-cu.ac.jp

New infectious diseases have appeared and threatened human beings in the recent decades. The SARS is one of the new infectious diseases, which have originated in South China and is spreading to all over the world. It is said that these new diseases came about due to changes in the relationship between human beings and animals. We need an environmental perspective to understand these diseases. We see this session as providing an opportunity to study the history of diseases and their causal relationship with environmental change in modern Asian context. For instance, historic epidemics like cholera, plague, and malaria in a modern Asian context are mostly related to environmental factors. This session invites multi-disciplinary approaches from economic history, historical demography, medical history and environmental history. Also we invite many regional specialist historians on East Asia, South-East Asia and South Asia.

Part I Diseases and Environmental Changes in East Asian Context
Chair: Kaoru Sugihara (Kyoto University, Japan)
Sihn Kyu-hwan (Yonsei University, Korea) Cholera and the "Disease of Intermediary Trade" in East Asia in the Nineteenth Century
Robert Perrins (Acadia University, Canada) Debating Disease: The History of the Manchurian International Plague Conference of April 1911
Yeo In-sok (Yonsei University, Korea) The Return of Malaria in Modern Korea
Wataru Iijima (Aoyama Gakuin University, Japan) A History of Schistomiasis in China: As Index of Environmental Change
Park Yunjae (Yonsei University, Korea) The Growth of Japanese Immigration into Korea and the Enforcement of Anti-Venereal Diseases Measurement
  Commentator: Wataru Iijima (Japan)
Part II Disease and Environmental Changes in Modern Asia: Comparative Perspective
K. T. Silva (University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka) Plantation Economy, Environmental Change and Malaria Epidemics in British Ceylon
Liu Shi-Yung (Academia Sinica, Taiwan) Parasitic Diseases as an Index of Environmental changes in Taiwan
Kohei Wakimura (Osaka City University, Japan) Globalization, Environmental Change and Epidemic Disease: Cholera in 19th Century Asia
Akihito Suzuki (Keio University, Japan) Cotton, Rats an Plague in Japan
Stephen Lloyd Morgan (University of Melbourne, Australia) Econometric Exploration of the Interaction between Disease and Physical Stature in Colonial Taiwan
  Commentator: Patrick Wallis (LSE, UK)

Location and time: Room 7 Main Building, 25 August 14.00-17.30

Risks at Work in Europe: Perception, Repair and Prevention (18th-20th Centuries)

Philippe Minard, Prof., University of Paris 8, France
Suzy Pasleau, Dr., University of Liège, Belgium
Catherine Omnes, Prof., Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, France
Jean-Paul Barriere, Dr., University of Lille-3, France

Philippe Minard
Université Paris 8
Département d’histoire
2 rue de la liberté
F-93526, Saint-Denis cedex, France
e-mail: philippe.minard@ens.fr

This session aims to address results from diverse researches on all the risks connected to the professional activity and to the health of the employees. She(it) aims also to compare the situations in the various European countries. The inquiry deals with industrial accidents, but also wear at work and the professional diseases, in the industry, the agriculture and the services. These questions must be addressed in a "longue durée" and a multi-field perspective (economy, law, medicine, physiology of the work). Special stress must be put on this comparative and interdisciplinary viewpoint. The notion of risk is obviously a social construction, and its definition is a stake in fights. It is so necessary to study the construction of the legal and scientific codifications in every country and within the international authorities, to see how are built the categories of recognized risks and the forms of prevention or repair accepted. The attitude of the various actors in front of occupational hazards varied. One will try to explain the ambivalent positions of the social actors, their differentiated perceptions of the risks and their attitudes in prevention.

Catherine Omnes (Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, France) Introductory report: Risks at work cultures and prevention practices in Europe during the 20th century
Philippe Minard (University Paris 8, France) Introductory report: Risk at work and professional disease: between actual danger and social construction
Patrick Wallis (London School of Economics, UK) English physicians and professional diseases, 17th-20th centuries
Jakob Vogel (T-U Berlin, Germany) Entre devoir social et intérêt professionnel: les médecins dans les salines en Prusse et en Autriche, 1750-1830
Jean-Paul Barriere (Université de Lille 3, France) Perception du risque au travail et préhistoire d’une maladie professionnelle: l’industrie de la céruse dans le nord de la France (1800-1950)
Martin Lengwiler (Université de Bâle, Switzerland) Styles of expertise: A comparison of expert-based risk policies in German and British welfare institutions (1850-1950)
Laure Machu (IDHE-CNRS, France) Entre prévention et réparation: les syndicats ouvriers face à la prévention du risque professionnels pendant l'entre deux guerres
Danielle Fraboulet-Rousselier (Université Paris 13, France) Les syndicats patronaux de la métallurgie face aux risques professionnels (France, 19th-20th centuries)
Paul-André Rosental (EHESS, Paris) La silicose, histoire d'une maladie professionnelle
Jeronia Pons Pons & Andrès Bibiloni (Université de Séville, Spain) The development of industrial accident insurance, from private to national insurance in 20th century Spain
Peter Bartrip (University of Northampton, UK) Asbestos and Health in Twentieth Century Britain. Motives and Outcomes
Odette Hardy (Université de Lille 3) Dangerosité, désinformation et compensation dans l’industrie de l’amiante en France: Eternit, 1922-2000
Nicolas Hatzfeld (université d’Evry, France) The emergence of musculo-skelettal disorders at work in France: field sensibilities, expert definitions and scientific debates (1982 - 1996)
Chair: Catherine Omnes (Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, France)

Location and time: Room 15 Main Building, 23 August 14.00-17.30

Attractions and Experiences: The Uses of History in Tourism Development

Auvo Kostiainen, Prof., University of Turku, Finland
Taina Syrjämaa, Dr., University of Turku, Finland

Auvo Kostiainen
University of Turku
Dept. of History
FI-20014 Turku, Finland
tel.: +358 2 333 5235
fax: +358 2 333 6560
e-mail: aukosti@utu.fi

The past is presently a favoured element in travel and tourism, and it gets more popular with the growing interest in experience andadventure travel. We may see history items and images printed intravel and tourism brochures, guide books and journals, photographs, documentary movies and videos, literary descriptions,souvenirs, as well as the latest high tech experiments. Comments on historical information and persons are very frequently used as a part of cultural tourism. We propose a session to discuss the uses of historical past in the travel and tourist industry. The session would include a multidisciplinary approach inquiring for differing possibilities of history to be a part of travel and tourism. The discussion may concentrate on the 19th and 20th century travel industry practices. However, even more ancient topics may be chosen for comparison (e.g. medieval, grand tour or 18th century travel). Papers focusing on recent and future trends in travel and tourism may be considered, and non-Western viewpoints would be welcomed.

Part I Auvo Kostiainen: Introduction
Timo Saastamoinen, University of Turku, Finland The Use of History in Late Medieval Guidebooks to Rome
Marcelo Fabián Figueroa, National Univ. of Tucumán, Argentina Curiosity, Erudition and Diversion: A Cabinet for the Nature at the end of the 18th Century
Taina Syrjämaa, University of Turku, Finland Selling History to Tourists. A Case Study of Interwar Italy
Part II  
Peter Lyth, Nottingham University Business School, UK Selling history in an age of industrial decline: heritage tourism in Robin Hood county
Maria Eskelinen (Finland) Past as a product: The use of Prehistory in Tourism. Case Wolf Cave - the oldest known human dwelling site in northern Europe
Tanja Vahtikari, University of Tampere, Finland World Heritage, Tourism, and Change

Location and time: Room 14 Metsätalo building, 24 August 9.00-12.30

Energy and Growth in the Long-run

Astrid Kander, PhD, Lund University, Sweden

Astrid Kander
Department of Economic History
Lund University
PO Box 7083, Lund, Sweden
tel.: +46 462220841
fax: +46 46131585
e-mail: astrid.kander@ekh.lu.se

The prime goal of this session is to illuminate the role of energy in long- term economic growth. Energy supply has clear importance in making growth possible, but also in determining the infrastructural and organisational possibilities and forms in which particular growth patterns emerge. However, the role of energy consumption as a consequence and a driver of growth is poorly researched compared to traditional factors capital and labour. The neoclassical framework has neglected the importance of natural resources, a situation only partly changed in the 1970s when society faced oil crises and became increasingly aware of energy constraints. Most quantitative research in the energy-growth field focuses on the last 10-50 years, but growth is a long-term process involving choices about investment, technological uptake and institutional structure with lasting consequences. A longer-term perspective will provide new alternative perspectives on the relationships of energy and growth than those developed on the basis of a limited number of energy carriers and covering only recent decades.

Richard Unger Changing Energy Regimes and Early Modern Economic Growth
Paul Warde and Magnus Lindmark Traditional energy carriers and growth
Paul Warde, Astrid Kander Energy availability and agricultural productivity - a new comparison
Ben Gales, Astrid Kander, Paolo Malanima, Mar Rubio North versus South. Energy transition and intensity in Europe over 200 years
Sofia Henriques Teives Fuel switching, a history of Portuguese energy transition
Kerstin Enflo, Astrid Kander, Lennart Schön Development Blocks and the Second Industrial Revolution – Sweden 1900-1974
Benjamin Warr, Robert Ayres The role of (energy) exergy services in driving economic growth. An historical long-term unit roots and cointegration analysis
Mar Rubio, Silvana Bartoletto Long run decomposition of CO2 emissions in four European countries: Italy, Netherlands, Spain and Sweden 1850-2000

Location and time: Aud XIV Main Building, 23 August 9.00-12.30

Back to top

Anthropometrics, Markets and Disease in Historical Standards of Living: Eurasian and American Countries

Ken'ichi Tomobe, Prof., Keio University, Japan
Deborah Oxley, Dr., University of New South Wales, Australia

Ken'ichi Tomobe
Faculty of Economics
Keio University
Mita, Minato-ku
Tokyo 108-8345 Japan
tel.: +3 3 5427 1366
fax: +3 3 5427 1578
e-mail: tomobe@econ.keio.ac.jp

This session aims to discuss the historical standard of living of the nineteenth to the early twentieth century world-wide. There has been considerable recent research in this area, in the development of anthropometric indices, diseases and public health, and market-related environments. Our session adds to these important developments and has the following three characteristics in particular. Firstly, our session is very comprehensive. We will show new data of heights, diseases and institutional responses to them, and price and wage movements during disasters and market integrations and will explore their mutual relations. Secondly, we will place the discussion in very comparative context. As shown in the list of presenters, our discussions cover over many countries and regions in the Eurasian and American areas. Examining the subjects above in Korea, European countries, Vietnam, Australia, Argentina and Japan, we will try to deepen our discussion globally. Thirdly our session is visually computerized. The organizers are developing an exciting new computer graphic tool, called the Rekisho Project, in which historical events and data can be represented three-dimensionally and chronologically. Most of the papers in our session will be shown by using this tool, together with some GIS technique.

Jane Humphries & Tim Leunig (UK) Cities, market integration and the sea. A preliminary set of findings of new work in anthropometric history
Pamera Sharpe (Australia) The emergence of the short and sickly child: stature, early childhood morbidity and poor relief in nineteenth-century England
Timothy Cuff (USA) Geographic pieces in the Antebellum puzzle: early nineteen-century Pennsylvania as a case Study
Stephen Wheatcroft (Australia) Russian and Soviet living standards: secular growth and conjunctural crises
Deborah Oxley (Australia) Measuring misery: body mass among Victorian London’s poor
Ricardo Salvatore (Argentina) Stature growth in industrializing Argentina: The Buenos Aires industrial belt 1916-1950
Kentaro Saito (Japan) Labour market Integration of the unskilled labour in modern Japan: with special reference to "Hiyatoi Ninhu" (general labourers) of the 1890s to 1930s
Mai Yamashita (Japan) The determinants of nurse’s first job from 1960’s to 1970’s in Japan
Takeshi Nagashima (Japan) Exposure to Infectious Disease in Modern Japan: A Case Study. The Typhus Epidemic of 1914
Akihito Suzuki (Japan) Exposure to Infectious Diseases in Modern Japan II: The Case of Measles
Ken’ichi Tomobe (Japan) The GIS and statistical analysis of ‘Karyu-byo’, Japan’s venereal disease, and the effect of the morbidity on indices of infertility and fertility in modern Japan
Osamu Saito (Hitotsubashi University) Agrarian progress and human growth: an anlysis of school records in Meiji rural Japan
Chair: Richard Steckel (USA)
Commentators: James Lee (USA), Cormac O’Grada (Ireland), Sunyoung Pak (Korea), Takao Matsumura (Japan)

Location and time: Room 12 Main Building, 23 August 9.00-12.30

SESSION 51 - cancelled

Long Run Change and International Comparisons: What the Global Prices and Incomes Project Can Tell Us

Philip T. Hoffman, Prof., California Institute of Technology, USA

Philip T. Hoffman
Division of Humanities and Social Sciences
HSS 228 77, Caltech
Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
tel.: +1 626 798 2347
fax: +1 626 405 9841
e-mail: pth@hss.caltech.edu

The Global Prices and Incomes Project has harnessed an international team of scholars to collect and analyze data on prices and incomes from across the world and over a period that stretches from the twentieth century back into as the Middle Ages. Team members (who range from recent PhD’s to senior scholars) are gathering price and income figures in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas and putting all the data in standard metric units expressed in local currency and grams of silver. The prices will include not just goods such as food, which have been the staple of previous price series, but a host of other commodities and services, including non-tradeables such as housing. The resulting price and income series will be put on the web and they will make it much easier to make systematic comparisons across time and space. They can then be used to study market integration, changes in inequality, long run economic growth, and a host of other questions in economics and history. The session gives an overview of the project and provide initial results of research based on the data that has been collected.

Part I  
Peter Lindert, University of California-Davis (USA) Introduction to the GPIH
Sevket Pamuk (Bogazici University, Turkey), Tarik Yousef (Georgetown, USA) Wages and Prices in Comparative Perspective
J.B. Lewis (Oxford University, UK), S. H. Jun (Sung Kyun Kwan University, South Korea) The movement of relative prices and relative factor prices in early modern Korea (1436-1930)
Jean Pascal Bassino (Australian National University), Debin Ma (London School of Economics), Osamu Saito, Hitotsubashi University (Japan) Wages, Prices, Income and Living Standards in 18th-20th-Century East Asia: An International Comparison
John Devereux (City University of New York, USA), Marianne Ward (Loyola College, USA) Understanding Long Run Income Comparisons
Part II  
Philip T. Hoffman, California Institute of Technology (USA) Why Is It That Europeans Conquered the Rest of the Globe? Prices, the Military Revolution, and Western Europe’s Comparative Advantage in Violence
Metin Cosgel, of the University of Connecticut (USA) Agricultural Productivity in the Early Ottoman Empire
Robert C. Allen, Oxford University (UK) Explaining The British Industrial Revolution: From the Perspective of Global Wage and Price History
David Jacks, Simon Fraser University (Canada) The Development of Norway’s Linkages to International Markets
Commentators: Johan Söderberg (on Allen, and Pamuk and Yousef); Guanglin Liu (on Bassino and Ma, Hoffman, and Lewis and Jun)

Location and time: Room 6 Main Building, 24 August 14.00-17.30

Cultural/Cross-Cultural Advertising and Promotion: The Nexus of Media, Culture and Economics

Katherine G. Fry, Assoc. Prof., Brooklyn College, USA
Jukka Kortti, Dr., University of Helsinki, Finland

Jukka Kortti
Department Of Social Science History
University of Helsinki
PO Box 54, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
tel.: +358 9 19124956
fax: +358 9 19124924
e-mail: jukka.kortti@helsinki.fi

This session will examine the interrelationships of media, culture and economy, with emphasis on advertising strategies in particular. Each paper approaches the nexus of media, culture and economy through the lens of history. As print, film and electronic media developed throughout the Twentieth century they continuously exerted a powerful influence on the workings of culture, and vice versa. An important component of Finnish and American media has been advertising, whether as a means to finance content, or as a tool to promote media industries themselves. In either case advertising has played an important role in the development of media, and in shaping culture. The cultural impact of advertising historically can be measured in many ways: in terms of its content, its influence on behaviours, its impact cross-culturally, and its ability, as an economic and cultural activity, to dictate ways of understanding ourselves and others. The session organizers have formed a core set of issues around advertising, and session papers will expand along this central, unified theme.

Part I Jukka Kortti and Katherine Fry: Introduction
Emily Baines, De Montfort University, Leicester (UK) Advertising Strategies in the Interwar British Printed Textile Industry
Outi Nieminen, University of Turku Domesticating International Cinema Culture and the Finnish Periodical Press in 1920’s and 1930's
Jukka Kortti, University of Helsinki Finnish Cigarette Television Advertising and Americanization
Part II  
Katherine G. Fry, Brooklyn College (USA) Advertising And the Body to Advertising On the Body: A socio-historical look at marketing of the future
Barbara Jo Lewis & Michael Shimanovsky, Brooklyn College of CUNY (USA) Influences Exerted on the Child Viewer When Exposed to Violent Imagery in Television and Print Advertising
Commentator: Gerben Bakker (Essex University)

Location and time: Room 14 Main Building, 25 August 9.00-12.30

Women and Business Networks in Industrialising Europe, 1700–1900

Alastair Owens, Dr., Queen Mary - University of London, United Kingdom
Jon Stobart, Dr., Coventry University, United Kingdom
Margrit Schulte Beerbühl, Dr., University of Düsseldorf, Germany

Alastair Owens
Department of Geography
Queen Mary - University of London
Mile End Road, London
E1 4NS, United Kingdom
tel.: +44 20 7882 5401
e-mail: A.J.Owens@qmul.ac.uk

While new institutional studies of business networks and social capital have opened up fresh perspectives on the economic history of industrialising northern Europe between 1700–1900, there remains a clear gender bias, both in the focus of empirical study and in the formulation and application of theory. This session seeks to place questions of gender more centrally in our analyses of the social and economic dimensions of business history. We invite papers of case studies that examine women’s roles in business networks in different European countries and in different economic sectors over the period 1750–1900. Topics might include the relationship between personal, family and business networks; the role of women in shaping inter-generational networks, or the link between networks, business practice or personal mobility/migration. We are also interested in how questions of gender might be incorporated into the theorisation of business networks, especially in relation to new institutional approaches. Finally, we seek papers that consider the significance of the study of business networks for understanding women’s economic agency. Can the study of the role of women in dynamic networks that transcend the categories of public and private, provide an alternative framework for understanding women’s economic power to the discredited ‘separate spheres’ thesis?

Part I Introduction: Alastair Owens & Margrit Schulte-Beerbühl
Laura Van Aert (University of Antwerp, Belgium) Selling textiles in a city in crisis, Antwerp 1650-1750
Galina Uliyanova (Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia) Women entrepreneurs in nineteenth-century Moscow
Stefanie van de Kerkhof (University of Hagen, Germany) How Women Became Principals - Business Networks and Regional Variations in Rhineland-Westfalia, Upper-Silesia, Cologne and Aachen
Hilde Greefs (University of Antwerp, Belgium) Women and business networks in nineteenth-century Antwerp
Part II  
Sari Mäenpää (National Board of Antiquities, Finland) Women, proprietorship and masculinity in the Liverpool business community 1850-1900
Helen Doe (University of Exeter, UK) Investment opportunities and the role of business networks for women in nineteenth century English maritime communities
Alison C. Kay, (King's College London, UK) Reconstructing the role of the household in businesswomen's networks of support, London 1851-1861
Discussant: Michael Schneider (University of Düsseldorf, Germany)

Location and time: Room 8 Metsätalo building, 22 August 9.00-12.30

The Modernization of Tax Systems in Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula: a Comparative Perspective

Carlos Contreras Carranza, Prof., Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru
Luis Jáuregui Frías, Prof., Instituto de Investigaciones Dr. José María Luis Mora, Mexico
Juan Pro Ruiz, Prof., Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain

Juan Pro Ruiz
Departamento de Historia Contemporánea
Facultad de Filosofía y Letras
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
C/ Francisco Tomás y Valiente, 1
28049 – Madrid, Spain
tel.: +34 914 974 147
fax: +34 914 974 749
e-mail: juan.pro@uam.es

Most of today’s Latin American fiscal systems face important problems that seem to be deeply rooted in the persistence of past structures with a high resistance to all reform attempts. This evaluation backs the project of tracing the historical origins of a global fiscal situation, characterized by the unjust distribution of tax burdens and the structural public sector deficits. A significant part of historical problems in Latin American and Iberian states can find an efficient set of explanations in the fiscal arena, given the large impact of tax systems in economic, political and social spheres. What we are aiming at is tackling all these questions with a long-run perspective, between the birth of independent national states, at the beginning of the 19th century, and today. And do so with a comparative approach, which enables us to identify analogies and differences in national historical experiences within the Latin American and Iberian area. Public finances have become a field of research developed very unequally by the different national historiographical traditions, in all the countries born out of the end of the Spanish and Portuguese empires. Each of these historiographies has been constructed separately, even with a high degree of isolation. Our proposal tries to reverse this unproductive tendency and set the bases for a transnational debate.

Part I Fiscal aspects of Bourbon Reforms and the projects of early national states
Kendall W. Brown (Brigham Young University, USA) The Transformation of the Peruvian Royal Treasury under the Bourbons: The Case of Arequipa
Jorge Silva Riquer (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Mexico) The tax reform to the city council in the territories of Spain and the New Spain, XVIIIth century
Jorge Gelman, Daniel Santilli (Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina) The limits of a modernization project. The "Contribución Directa" in Buenos Aires during the first half of the 19th century
Luis Jauregui Frías (Instituto de Investigaciones Dr. José María Luis Mora, Mexico) Revisiting direct contributions in Nineteenth Century Mexico. New discoveries and hypotheses
Ernest Sánchez Santiró (Instituto de Investigaciones Dr. José María Luis Mora, Mexico) A conservative modernization: The indirect taxes of the states in Mexico during the First Federal Republic (1824-1835)
Juan Pan-Montojo (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain) Customs revenues and State-building: Spain, Argentina, Peru and Mexico in the 19th century
Part II The culmination of fiscal reforms and the new challenges of modernization
Francisco Comin (Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Spain), Daniel Diaz Fuentes (Universidad de Cantabria, Spain) The evolution of tax systems in Argentina, Spain, and Mexico, 1820-1940
Andrés Regalsky, Elena Salerno (Universidad Nacional Tres de Febrero, Argentina) Public Finance and Investment in the Transition toward Entrepreneur State. Argentina 1900-1935
Juan Pro Ruiz (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain) On tax reforms in Argentina and Spain: the critique of the 19th century taxation and the 20th century challenges
José Antonio Sánchez Román (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain) The Economic Elites and Income Taxation in Argentina, 1930-1945
Jorge Saborido (Universidad de La Pampa, Argentina) A besieged elite: the landowners and the attempt to introduce a tax on potential land rent in Argentina
Jorge Gaggero (CEFID-AR, Argentina) The tax issue in Argentina: a historic backward case

Location and time: Aud XII Main Building, 22 August 9.00-12.30

The Economics of Latin American Labor

James P. Brennan, Prof., University of California - Riverside, USA

James P. Brennan
Department of History
University of California
Riverside, Ca. 92521, USA
tel.: +1 951 827 1992
e-mail: james.brennan@ucr.edu

The study of Latin American labor is at a crossroads and this panel seeks to suggest new areas of research and also to establish a framework for dialogue with already established approaches. The panel explores the utility of studying Latin American labor by industrial sector and as a complement to the strictly cultural approaches which now dominate labor history, especially in the English-speaking world. It concentrates on the economics of labor broadly defined (labor markets, econometrics, industrial relations, production) and by specific industrial sector (mining, textiles, meatpacking, automobiles, steel, and oil) in order to highlight cross-national comparisons and to focus on material-related similarities rather than cultural peculiarities. A major purpose of the panel is to demonstrate the multiple dimensions of the labor economy, their effects on working people, and their importance in the research and writing of a more integrative labor history.

Steven Bachelor, Colgate University (USA) Strategy, Political Economy, and Class Conflict in Mexico's Automobile Industry
Jeffrey Bortz, Appalachian State Univ. (USA) & Marcos Aguila, Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana- Xochimilco (Mexico) Earning a Living. A History of Real Wage Studies in Twentieth-Century Mexico
Oliver Dinius, University of Mississippi (USA) Technology, the Division of Labor, and Workers’ Power in Brazil’s National Steel Company
Aurora Gómez-Galvarriato, CIDE-Mexico (Mexico) Myth and Reality of Company Stores during the Porfiriato: The tiendas de raya of Orizaba's Textile Mills
Mónica Gordillo, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina) The Economics of Latin American Labor
Silvia Simonassi, Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Argentina) Industria, trabajadores y empresarios en un espacio en transformación: el Gran Rosario, Argentina (1958-1976): problemas y procesos
John Womack, Harvard University (USA) Working Power over Production: Labor History, Industrial Work, Economics, Sociology, and Strategic Position
Commentators: Emilio Kourí, University of Chicago (USA), John Coatsworth, Harvard University (USA), Brodwyn Fischer, Northwestern University (USA), Mirta Lobato, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina), José Moya, University of California - Los Angeles (USA)

Location and time: Aud XIII Main Building, 24 August 9.00-12.30

Comparative Imperial and National Finance in a Modernizing World

John F. Richards, Prof., Duke University, USA

John F. Richards
Duke University
1012 Gloria Avenue
Durham, NC 27701, USA
tel.: +1 919 688 8828
e-mail: richards@duke.edu

The basic topic of this panel is that of comparative state finance - revenue, expenditure, budgeting, borrowing, reporting - during the last two to three hundred years. During this period states generally became more and more effective in controlling their finances and more sophisticated in their understanding of public finance. We also see a steady move toward expenditures on a much wider range of public goods such as public health and medicine, education, sanitation etc. There are many questions that can be addressed under this wide umbrella. For example, what is the trajectory and weight of public debt and to whom is the money owed? What is the trajectory and weight of military spending over time? What is the trend and scale of public goods investments? What about railway spending? What is the trend and size of the major categories of revenues? Are these sources regressive or progressive? Is the state well-funded or starved for funds? How transparent is fiscal reporting? What is the relationship between provincial revenues and expenditures and those of the central government? Are total revenues controlled by the center as in the case of India or is the central government weakened in this regard?

Aurelia Hernández-Moyés (Universidad Pública de Navarra, Spain) A quantitative analysis of fiscal revenues in Spain (1940-1980)
Jari Eloranta (Appalachia State University, USA), and Svetlozar Andreev A comparative study of public finance of autocracies and democracies
John F. Richards (Duke University, USA) Fiscal Strains in British India 1860-1914
Peter Waldron (University of East Anglia, UK) Financing the Imperial Russian State
Erol Ozvar (Marmara University, Turkey) The Finances of The Ottoman Empire: Revenues and Expenditures, 1509-1789
Discussant: Peter Lindert (University of California, Davis)

Location and time: Room 12 Metsätalo building, 25 August 9.00-12.30

Making Global and Local Connections: Historical Perspectives on Port Economics

Tapio Bergholm, Dr., University of Helsinki, Finland
Lewis R. Fischer, Prof., Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
M. Elisabetta Tonizzi, Dr., University of Genoa, Italy

Tapio Bergholm
PO Box 157
FI-00531 Helsinki, Finland
tel.: +358 9 772 1339 mobile: +358 50 547 2771
fax: + 358 9 772 1373
e-mail: tapio.bergholm@helsinki.fi

Structural change has always been one of the main questions addressed by economic historians. Ports, which are focal points of international, national and local economic development and change, have also been a staple of historical research. Yet the two strands have too often been divorced. This session aims to help to close this gap in the record of the past. Although economic activities and social relations are heavily dependent on the dynamics in a particular locale, first and foremost they reflect key issues in global economic development. This is exemplified well by the recent evolution of the world economic and transport systems. Beginning in the 1970s, globalisation, containerisation and intermodality led to the creation of a “door-to-door” transport system run by international multi-modal operators who are not linked to a particular port but rather choose the hub which can accommodate massive volumes, provide the best cargo handling and guarantee frequent and rapid connections to other ports and the hinterland. As a result of all these changes, port history has become a significant field of research to aid in our understanding of the historical transformation of economic, commercial, transport and technological networks, as well as industrial, social and urban relations. Interesting research projects from various temporal periods are now in nearing completion. Moreover, new research on port economics has deepened our comprehension of the complicated interplay between import and export markets, whether beyond the sea or closer at hand. This session aims to bring together a group of port historians interested in the kinds of issues outlined above. The pre-conference Port Economics - research from various periods and congress session will be co-sponsored by the International Maritime Economic History Association. The pre-conference, to be held on 18-20 August in Kotka, Finland, will also be co-sponsored by the University of Helsinki's Continuing Education Centre in Kotka, the town and port of Kotka, and the Provincial Museum of Kymenlaakso.

Part I Port systems
Chairperson and Commentator Lewis Fischer (Canada)
Amélia Polónia (Portugal) Northwest Portugal seaport system in the Early Modern Age. Results of a research project
Richard Coopey (UK) Trading in the imperial stream. The community of Severn ports from 1750 to 1950
Marc Badia-Miró (Spain) The ports of Northern-Chile, a mining history in a long-run perspective, 1880-2002
Hülya Günaydin (Turkey) Globalization and privatization of ports in Turkey
Part II Port Systems
Chairperson and Commentator Lewis Fischer (Canada)
Tapio Bergholm (Finland) Chaotic or flexible adaptation. Structural change in the Finnish port system 1945-2000
  Shifts in commodity / 'human' routes and port policy
Chairperson and Commentator M. Elisabetta Tonizzi (Italy)
Yu-Ping Lee (Taiwan) Two forms of imperialism and Asia's international economic order: English and Japanese maritime competition in the China-centreed international sea area in the early 1930s
Torsten Feys (Belgium) Where all passenger liners meet: the port of new York as a nodal point for the transatlantic migration trade
Malcolm Tull (Australia) The environmental impact of ports: an historical perspective

Location and time: Room 12 Main Building, 21 August 14.30-18.00

Cotton Textiles as a Global Industry, 1200-1850

Kent Deng, Dr., London School of Economics, United Kingdom
Prasannan Parthasarathi, Prof., Boston College, USA
Giorgio Riello, Dr. London School of Economics, United Kingdom

Giorgio Riello
Global Economic History Network
Economic History Department
London School of Economics
Houghton Street
London WC2A 2AE, United Kingdom
tel.: +44 20 7955 6482
fax: +44 20 7955 7730
e-mail: g.riello@lse.ac.uk

The cotton industry has long been a central attraction for economic historians interested in explaining the dynamics of economic development and technological change. Their emphasis has, however, been upon the periods immediately before, during and after the Industrial Revolution. The histories of commerce and connexions between the producers and consumers of cotton textiles in Asia, Africa, the Americas and Europe in the medieval and early modern periods remain underesearched. This session on ‘Cotton Textiles as a Global Industry’ will address world connexions across the industry by gathering together scholars with expertise on the long run histories of industries located in Europe, the Middle East, India, China and Japan. Although the secondary literature on some countries (e.g. Britain and India) is rich, much less is known about the production, trade and consumption of cotton textiles in the Ottoman Empire, China, West Africa, the Americas and the West Indies. For more information, including abstracts and short papers, please see the Cotton Research Project of the Global Economic History Network
Session 59 will include the presentation and discussion of seven additional papers in the morning of Tuesday 22 August. The afternoon session will discuss all papers presented at the various meetings and will focus on three main topics: the comparative analysis of the world cotton industries; trade and consumption of cotton textiles; cotton textiles and the Great Divergence.

Ricardo Córdoba de la Llave, University of Córdoba The Cotton Industry in Spain during the Middle Ages
Robert S. DuPlessis, Swarthmore College Cottons Consumption in the Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World
David Jeremy, Manchester Metropolitan University Invention & diffusion in the global cotton industry, late 18thc-1850
José Jobson de Andrade Arruda, University of São Paulo, Brazil Brazilian raw cotton as a strategic factor in global textile manufacturing during the industrial revolution
Prasannan Parthasarathi, Boston College Cotton textile exports from the Indian subcontinent, 1680-1780
Tirthankar Roy, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics Cotton Textiles in India and the Indian Ocean in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
James Thomson, University of Sussex Developments in the Catalan Cotton Industry during Spain’s Old Régime Crisis

Short versions of papers presented at previous meetings by participants listed below can be found at the Cotton Research Project -website.

Takeshi Abe, Osaka University, Japan
Huw Bowen, University of Leicester, UK
Kent Deng, London School of Economics, UK
Suraiya Faroqhi, Ludwig Maximilians University, Germany
James Fichter, Harvard University, USA
Sakis Gekas, London School of Economics, UK
Negley Harte, University College London, UK
Pat Hudson, University of Cardiff, UK
Joseph E. Inikori, University of Rochester, USA
Colleen E. Kriger, University of North Carolina, USA
Beverly Lemire, University of Alberta, Canada
Maureen Mazzaoui Fennell, University of Wisconsin, USA
Patrick O’Brien, London School of Economics, UK
Prasannan Parthasarathi, Boston College, USA
Ulrich Pfister, Westfalische Wilhelms-Universitat, Germany
Om Prakash, University of Delhi, India
Olivier Raveux, CNRS, France
Giorgio Riello, London School of Economics, UK
George Bryan Souza, University of Texas, USA
John Styles, University of Hertfordshire, UK
Masayuki Tanimoto, University of Tokyo, Japan
Ian C. Wendt, Washington State University, USA
Harriet Zurndorfer, Leiden University, The Netherlands

Location and time: Room 6 Metsätalo building, 22 August 9.00-12.30 and 14.00-17.30

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Agriculture and Economic Development in Europe since 1870

Pedro Lains, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
Vicente Pinilla, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain

Pedro Lains
Instituto de Ciências Sociais da Universidade de Lisboa
Avenida Professor Aníbal de Bettencourt
9 1600-189 Lisboa, Portugal
tel.: +351 217 804 769
fax: +351 217 940 274
e-mail: pedro.lains@ics.ul.pt

The purpose of this session is to analyze the importance of agriculture in economic growth in the European countries which by 1870 still had a large agrarian sector. In order to asses the role of the agrarian sector in European economic development, we need to study in detail the growth of output, factor inputs and factor productivity. The fact that we are putting the available quantitative information together will make it possible to answer relevant questions regarding the contribution of agriculture to economic growth since 1870. What were the main cycles of agricultural output growth since 1870? What was the impact in output of the grain invasion and the growth of export markets? How did agriculture react to protection in the interwar period? What was the role of agriculture during the European golden age? What happened to the growth of labor force and labor participation rates? How did investment evolve and how did its composition change? Last and more importantly: How did labor, capital and total factor productivity performed? The discussion of these questions for a large number of countries and for a period of time that encompasses different epochs provides the needed framework for an assessment of the role of agriculture in economic development in the century from 1870 to the present.

Part I Welcome: Pedro Lains and Vicente Pinilla
Alan Olmstead (UC Davis) & Paul Rhode (U North Carolina) Conceptual Issues for the Comparative Study of Agricultural Development
Steve Broadberry (U Warwick) Agriculture and structural change: lessons from the UK experience in an international context
Gema Aparicio, Vicente Pinilla & Raul Serrano (U Zaragoza) Europe and the international agricultural and food trade, 1870-2000
Lennart Schön (U Lund) Swedish Agriculture in Economic Development 1870-1939
Ingrid Henriksen (U Copenhagen) Agriculture in Denmark, 1870-1939. From asset to liability?
Jan-Pieter Smits (U Groningen) Technological change, institutional development and economic growth in Dutch agriculture, 1870-1939
Part II  
Nadine Vivier (U Maine) Agriculture and economic development in Europe, 1870-1939
Oliver Grant (U Oxford) Agriculture and economic development in Germany, 1870-1939
Giovanni Federico (EUI) Agriculture and modern economic growth in Italy, 1870-1939
Ernesto Clar & Vicente Pinilla (U Zaragoza) Agriculture and economic development in Spain, 1870-1973: not such a long siesta
Pedro Lains (U Lisbon) Agriculture and economic development in Portugal, 1870-1973
Socrates Petmezas (U Crete) Agriculture and economic growth in Greece, 1870-1973
Nikolaus Wolf (Frei U Berlin) Local Comparative Advantage: Agriculture and Economic Development in Poland, 1870-1970
Michael Kopsidis (IAOM, Halle) Agricultural development and impeded growth: the case of Hungary 1870–1970
Sevket Pamuk (U Bogaziçi) Agricultural Output and Productivity Growth in Turkey since 1880
Debin Ma (LSE, UK): conceptual issues, structural change, trade
Cormac O’Grada (University College Dublin, Ireland): Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden
Joerg Baten (U Tuebingen, Germany): France, Germany, Italy
James Simpson (U Carlos III, Madrid): Portugal, Spain, Greece
Alan Olmstead (UC Davis, USA): Hungary, Poland, Turkey

Location and time: Room 13 Main Building, 21 August 14.30-18.00

Complementary Relationship among Monies in History

Akinobu Kuroda, Prof., University of Tokyo, Japan
Torbjörn Engdahl, Dr., Uppsala University, Sweden

Akinobu Kuroda
Institute of Oriental Culture
University of Tokyo
Hongo7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku
Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan
tel.: +81 3 5841 5884
fax: +81 3 5841 5898
e-mail: kuroda@ioc.u-tokyo.ac.jp or QZI06607@nifty.com

Hicks recognized the coexistence of local currency and grand money. More recently Sargent and Velde have analyzed the independent behaviour of small change and large denominations within the same currency in early modern Europe. Meanwhile anthropologists and historians have accounted for the coexistence of multiple currencies in circulation in Africa, Asia, and Spanish America. The historical evidence of coexisting monies suggests that a currency or a denomination of a certain origin and description is not necessarily a substitute for another and that the acceptance of money is neither exclusively dependent on its intrinsic value nor on the formal backing of an issuing authority. Uncertain and unstable conditions for the conversion between various kinds of money indicate that the existence of multiple monies have a greater significance than what the notion of currency substitution embodies. This would then have implications both for the theoretical conceptualisation of the aggregated money supply and for the historical analysis of monetary, financial and fiscal institutions. This session seeks to analyze and compare cases of multiple monies in circulation in the history of Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe. The papers address the implications of the complementary use of multiple monies by looking at the causes and conditions for their coexistence and at the resulting effects for markets, trade circuits, agricultural cycles, credit creating institutions and for the elasticity both in the supply of and demand for money.

Part I Complementarity among Monies in History
Kuroda, Akinobu (U of Tokyo, Japan) Complementarity Non-Integral among Monies in History: Nature of Currency as Viscous, Non-Uniform, and Separable Stream
Willem Wolters (U of Nijmegen, The Netherlands) Multiple Currencies in Southeast Asia: The Overlap between Markets and Spheres of Payment
Om Prakash (Delhi School of Economics, India) Co-existence of Standardized and Humble Money: the Case of India in the 17th century
Doo Hwan Oh (Inha U, South Korea) Complementarity; Fiduciary Small Money with Deficiency of Silver Standard Money in Korea
Hans Ulrich Vogel (U of Tübingen Germany) The Complementary Relationship between Copper Cash and Silver Tael: The Beijing Mints in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
Shiro Yoji (Saga U, Japan) Rethinking on the Controversy between J. Locke and W. Lowndes: From the View-point of Pound Sterling as the Imaginary Money
Anders Ögren (Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden) What Endows Paper Money with Value? Parallel Currencies in Sweden, 1789–1833
Part II Complementary Monies and Their Theoretical Implications
Luca Fantacci (Bocconi U, Italy) The Monetary Regime of the Renaissance: Complementary Currencies for Domestic and Foreign Exchange
Massimo Amato (Bocconi U, Italy) Complementarity: The Economic Question of the Proper Use of Money. Occidental Answers from Aristotle to Keynes
Dennis Flynn (U of Pacific, USA) Small Change and Big Monies: A Unified Price Theory of Money
Torbjörn Engdahl (Uppsala U, Sweden) Multiple Monies in Nineteenth Century Sweden: New Empirical and Theoretical Implications
Commentators: Jane Guyer (Johns Hopkins Univ), Hiroshi Kato (Hitotsubashi Univ), Sevket Pamuk (Bogazici Univ)

Location and time: Aud XII Main Building, 24 August 14.00-17.30

Factor and Commodity Prices: the Performance of the Less Industrialized Economies 1870-1939

David Greasley, Dr., University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Kris Inwood, Dr., University of Guelph, Canada
John Singleton, Dr., University of Wellington, New Zealand

David Greasley
School of History and Classics
University of Edinburgh
50 George Square
Edinburgh, United Kingdom
tel.: +44 131 6503838
fax: +44 131 6506645
e-mail: David.Greasley@ed.ac.uk

We will report and discuss evidence of the rental-wage ratio for a range of countries, and consider a variety of themes surrounding the forces promoting or the consequences of factor and commodity price shifts among the less industrialized countries. These will include trade and transport costs, organizational changes in factor markets, industrialisation or its retardation, and income or wealth distribution. Our sample of countries had a variety of experience, and range from land abundant economies, for example Canada and Australia to natural resource scarce economies, for example Denmark and Japan. Some, including Uruguay and New Zealand, are countries of recent European settlement, others, including India are not, and in the former group, some are part of the English-speaking world, and others are not. The sample also has wide geographical spread, from the Asia-Pacific region, including Vietnam, to the Americas, including Argentina, Africa, including Ghana, and Europe. This diversity provides a basis for analysing the varied experience of factor and commodity prices shifts, their causes, and the consequences for economic performance and income distribution among less industrialised economies 1870-1939.

Part I Wages and Asian Economies (chair David Greasley)
Tirthankar Roy (Gokhale Institute of Politics, India) Globalization and Agricultural Labour in Colonial India
Osamu Saito, (Hitosubashi University, Japan) Factor prices in agriculture and inter-sectoral differentials: Japan, 1880-1940
Jean-Pascal Bassino & Pierre van der Eng (Australia National University) The first East Asian economic miracle: a comparison of nominal wages and welfare of urban workers in Southeast Asia, Japan and Europe, 1880-1938
  Wage-Rental Ratios and Income Distribution (chair John Singleton)
Martin Shanahan & John Wilson (Univ. of South Australia) Measuring inequality using factor markets
Jan Bohlin & Svante Larsson (University of Goteborg, Sweden) The Swedish wage-rental ratio and its determinants, 1877–1926
David Greasley (Univ. of Edinburgh, UK), Les Oxley (Univ. of Canterbury, New Zealand) The Pastoral Boom, the Rural Land Market, and Long Swings in New Zealand Economic Growth 1873-1939
Part II Factor Prices in Africa and Canada (chair Martin Shanahan)
Gareth Austin (LSE, UK) Labour and Land in Ghana, 1874-1939: a shifting ratio and an institutional revolution
Kris Inwood, Henry Thille (Univ. of Guelph, Canada) & Herbert Emery (Univ. of Calgary, Canada) Inequality and the Evolution of the Canadian Economy 1870-1913
Mary MacKinnon (McGill, Canada) & Chris Minns (LSE, England) Markets for Educated Labour in a Resource Economy: Teachers in British Columbia 1900-1930
  Southern Hemisphere Performance (chair Kris Inwood)
John Singleton (Victoria Univ. of Wellington, New Zealand) Freight costs between Australasia and Europe, c. 1870-1939
Jorge Álvarez Scaniello (Universidad de la República, Uruguay) & Gabriel Porcile (Univ. de Parana, Brazil) Institutions, the land market and income distribution in New Zealand and Uruguay, 1870-1940
José Ricardo Gonçalves & Maria Alejandra Madi (Univ. Estadual de Campinas, Brazil) Commodity prices, financial integration and policy options: the performance of Brazilian economy, 1889-1931
David Greasley (Univ. of Edinburgh, UK), Jakob Madsen (Copenhagen Univ., Denmark) A Tale of Two Peripheries: Real Wages in Denmark and New Zealand 1875-1939

Location and time: Aud XIII Main Building, 25 August 9.00-12.30

International Monetary and Financial Cooperation in the 20th Century. Markets, Policies and Institutions

Catherine R. Schenk, Prof., University of Glasgow, United Kingdom
Piet Clement, Dr., Bank for International Settlements, Switzerland

Piet Clement
Archives and Research Support
Bank for International Settlements
CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland
tel.: +41 61 280 8281
fax: +41 61 280 9100
e-mail: piet.clement@bis.org

In the course of the twentieth century the international monetary system has witnessed a number of seesaw changes. From the classical gold standard of the Belle Epoque to the unstable gold exchange standard of the interwar period, and from the post-1945 Bretton Woods system of fixed exchange rates to the era of floating after 1973. One of the perennial debates in economic history concerns the question of how much formal or informal cooperation the international monetary system requires, or indeed tolerates. Views on and practices of international monetary and financial cooperation have differed widely over the course of the century, largely dependent on the prevailing monetary regime. One aim of this session is to compare these different historical experiences over time (successive monetary regimes) and space (core and periphery), and thereby provide elements for a more comprehensive overview and assessment of international monetary and financial developments and policymaking during the twentieth century. This session will look in particular at the dynamic interaction between markets, government policies, national monetary authorities and international monetary institutions (IMF, BIS).

Part I  
David Khoudour-Castéras (Universidad Externado de Colombia) Labor Immobility and Exchange rate Regimes: an Alternative Explanation for the Fall of the Interwar Gold Exchange Standard
James Boughton (IMF) The IMF and the Force of History: Ten Events and Ten Ideas that have shaped the Institution
Piet Clement (Bank for International Settlements) Central bank cooperation at the Bank for International Settlements and the transition from a state-led to a market-led financial system, 1950s-1970s
Stefano Battilossi (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid) The Fiscal Roots of Delayed Financial Liberalization in Western Europe, 1960-1991
Catherine R Schenk (University of Glasgow) Financial markets and systemic risk: the response of central banks
Part II  
Concepción García-Iglesias (University of Helsinki) and Juha K. Kilponen (Bank of Finland) From Silver to Euro: Explorations to the development of financial markets in Finland
Kazuhiko Yago (Metropolitan University Tokyo) Monetary and Financial Cooperation in Asia: markets and institutions
Pierre L. Siklos (Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Canada) Revisiting the Coyne Affair: why clarity and transparency are crucial in avoiding Government – Central bank conflicts
Ksenia Gerasimova (Moscow State University) Monetary challenges of European integration: the case of Ireland
Philippe Ledent and Isabelle Cassiers (Université Catholique de Louvain) Learning to manage external contraints: Belgian monetary policy during the Bretton Woods era (1944-1971)
Commentators: Richard Roberts (Sussex University), Michael Bordo (Rutgers University), Ivo Maes (National Bank of Belgium)

Location and time: Room 10 Main Building, 22 August 9.00-12.30

The Establishment of Modern Business Press

Mats Larsson, Prof., Uppsala University, Sweden
Håkan Lindgren, Prof., Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden

Mats Larsson
Department of Economic History
Uppsala University
PO Box 513, S-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden
tel.: +46 18 4711232
fax: +46 18 4711223
e-mail: mats.larsson@ekhist.uu.se

International research on media has often been focusing on the overall structure of this sector or on the journalistic content of publications. Comparatively little research has been done on the media companies and the establishment and functioning of markets. In this proposed session we which to develop research on media business history in general and on business press in particular. Business press in the Western economies were in some countries established already during the late 19th and early 20th century, when industrial development functioned as a catalyst for new publications. However a more general development of business press within developed economies, did not come about until after WW2 and especially after the 1970s. In this session the establishment of business press in relation to national and international economic development will be analyzed. What preconditions were necessary for the rise of business press in the late 19th century compared to later establishments? How did markets and readers change over time? In what way have globalisation and the growing importance of stock markets and financial intermediaries influenced the development of the business press? The role of family owned publishing houses in business press and the influence of ownership structures on developments will also be discussed.

Part I Chair: Mats Larsson
Gerben Bakker The Emergence of Global News Networks: Sunk Costs, Technical Change and the Industrialisation of Current Affairs, 1750-1900
Per H. Hansen & Per Boje The Danish Business Press, 1782-2005. With special emphasis on the development from the 1970s - ownership and the role of editors
Håkan Lindgren On Virgin Soil. Entrepreneurs in Swedish Business Journalism in the 1960s and 1970s
Part II Chair: Håkan Lindgren
Margarita Dritsas Business Press and the Advent of Tourism in Greece during the 20th Century
Charlotte Natmessnig Business Press in Austria
Thomas Häussler & Peter Meier Rush in - "Cash" out. Ringiers expansion into Eastern Europe in the 1990s
Mats Larsson Markets and Owners in Swedish Business Press During the 20th Century/td>
Krim Talia, Stockholm School of Economics
Monica Löfgren-Nilsson, Gothenburg University
Peter Eigener, Vienna University
Christoffer Rydland, Stockholm School of Economics

Location and time: Room 14 Main Building, 25 August 14.00-17.30

Proto-industrialization: Small Productive Units in Latin America and Peripheral Societies During the XIX-XX Centuries - A Comparative Economic History Reappraisal

Carlos Rioja, University of Guadalajara, Mexico
Humberto Morales, Autonomous University of Puebla, Mexico

Carlos Riojas
Department of Regional Studies
University of Guadalajara
Periférico Norte 799
Módulo M 2o Nivel
Núcleo Universitario Los Belenes
C. P. 45100, Zapopan Jalisco, Mexico
tel.: +52 37 3770 3404, +52 37 3770 3300 ext. 5247
e-mail: criojas@cucea.udg.mx

The theoretical perspectives to study the industrialization process are so varied, however, one of these approaches where the small production units (SPU) are taken as a central element in the analysis is the "proto-industrial" point of view. Even, the proto-industrialization (which could be understood as an unfinished process) not only is related to the SPU, but also it tries to scrutinize the different articulations and insertions into the productive regional systems through the time, especially theses relationships consolidated in the ancien régime. Therefore, we believe that it is essential to discuss about the nature and the mechanisms of persistence of the SPU systems in Mexico, Latin America and other so called "peripheral" societies during the XIX and XX centuries, trying to understand their participation in the industrialization process, understood it as a longue durée event. The symposium highlights as main task to debate in a comparative perspective as in the long run as in the different regional Latin American landscapes and peripheral societies, some of the principal characteristics of the SPU’s during the XIX and XX centuries. We will try to privilege the proto-industrial approach and compare this perspective with other points of view. A first particularity of the SPU’s has been its heterogeneity. A second one, the peculiar participation of the domestic group in the production process and commercialization. This productive units have constituted the social base of the industrialization process in Mexico and other Latin American countries, it is not so easy to locate them, but they are crucial in order to understand productive networks in the Latin American economies, as it has become evident through the time; moreover given their proper nature, it has been so complicated to identify the accurate proportion in whole industrial systems through the time. The SPU’s have acted in urban as well as rural milieu, based in their specific activities and insertion in the productive systems during the XIX and XX centuries. The informal economic activity (clandestinely) has been a third specificity, expressly in critical moments derived from the economic and political troubles.

Part I Introduction: Humberto Morales and Carlos Riojas
Sergio Niccolai, UNAM, Mexico The protoindustrial paradigm and the historical economic reality in Mexico (XVIII and XIX centuries)
Nephtali Sierraalta, Center of Planning and Administration, Bolivia Competitiveness and strategic behavior in the Micro and Small Companies of Cochabamba Bolivia
Humberto Morales Moreno, Autonomous University of Puebla, Mexico Pre-industry proto-industry and industrial system in Mexico in the XIX century. The factory system in agrarian landscapes since 1835 to 1880
María Eugenia Romero, UNAM, Mexico The origins of entrepreneurial development in Northeast Mexico, 1880-1930
Part II  
José Alfredo Uribe Salas, UMSNH, Mexico Between the agrarian and the industrial. The silk proto-industry in Mexico and the Compañía Michoacana para el Fomento de la Seda during the first half of the nineteenth century
Susana Valdivieso, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Colombia Industrialization and institutional framework: a case study in Colombia
Carlos Riojas, University of Guadalajara, Mexico Early-19th century household in Guadalajara (Mexico): A proto-industrial approach
Commentators: Manuel Miño Grijalva (El Colegio de México), Richard J. Salvucci (Trinity University, San Antonio)

Location and time: Room 8 Metsätalo building, 25 August 14.00-17.30

A Bank for Poor. The Credit Upon Pledge and "Monti di Pietà" (XVth-XXIth Centuries)

Paola Avallone, Prof., Italian National Council of Research (CNR), Italy
Montserrat Carbonell Esteller, Prof., Universidad de Barcelona, Spain
Maria Giuseppina Muzzarelli, Prof., University of Bologna, Italy

Paola Avallone
Institute of Studies on Mediterranean Societies
Italian National Council of Research
Via P. Castellino, 111
80131 – Naples, Italy
tel.: +39 8 16134086
fax: +39 8 15799467
e-mail: avallone@issm.cnr.it

The project aims at exploring the need for small credit as solidarity, the culture that underlies the proposals for a solution to this need and the experiences put forward over the long term (XVth-XXIth centuries) and in different territorial realities (Europe and Latin America). The analysis will start from the first forms of public loans upon pledge in central and northern Italy in the late Middle Ages based in light of the most recent historiographic analyses as ante-litteram forms of popular micro-financing. The premises and the applicable forms of the loan and the development over the centuries will be studied. The present micro-credit carried out in many countries and presented as a novelty has instead deep roots and distant origins that will be explained by studying the foundation of the "Monti di Pietà" and their evolution in both Italian and foreign cities. The innovative aspect of the project consists in recovering the antecedents of the present proposals of ethical loans, which from their origins have presented solidarity as a business and the common good as an investment. It also consists in combining the study of the past with the study of the present, and in particular the forms of micro-credit proposed and realized in many countries and at the centre of the general interest having the United Nations declared 2005 the international year of micro-credit. Nowadays not much credit is given to the usefulness of history and this lack of recognition inhibits drawing lessons from experience and proceeding more swiftly along the path that others have already threaded before us.

Part I Early Modern and Modern Epoch Chair: Montserrat Carbonell Esteller
Commentator: Carlos Marichal (Colegio de Mexico, Mexico)
Maria Giuseppina Muzzarelli (University of Bologna, Italy) The Medieval invention of emancipating credit
Paola Avallone, Raffaella Salvemini (Italian National Council of Research) Between ethics and economy. Loans in charitable institutions in preunification Southern Italy
Madeleine Ferrieres (Università d'Avignon, France) Jeanne Careme and the first credit upon pledge at the Avignon “Mont de Pieté”
Part II Modern and Contemporary Epoch Chair: Paola Avallone
Commentator: Vera Zamagni (University of Bologna)
Ángel Pascual Martínez Soto (Universidad De Murcia, Spain) "Montes de Piedad" and Savings Banks in 19th Century Spain (1835-1875)
Montserrat Carbonell Esteller (Universidad de Barcelona, Spain) The microfinancial network in XIX century Barcelona: The “Monte de Piedad” between formal and informal sector
Marie Francois (Auburn University, USA) Welfare for middle class housekeepers: Mexico’s “Monte de Piedad” in the Nineteenth century

Location and time: Room 8 Main Building, 24 August 9.00-12.30

Public Houses and Economic Exchange in Western Europe c. 1500-1800

Thomas Brennan, Prof., US Naval Academy - Annapolis, USA
Beat Kümin, Dr., University of Warwick, United Kingdom

Beat Kümin
Department of History
University of Warwick
Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom
tel.: +44 2476 524915
fax: +44 2476 523437
e-mail: b.kumin@warwick.ac.uk

Public houses are a lively field in early modern historiography. Recent studies emphasize their social and cultural role in different contexts. The economic importance of inns, taverns and alehouses, however, has attracted much less attention. The proposed panel offers a first comparative approach to this topic for Western Europe, where much ground work has already been undertaken. Key developments in early modern Europe, in particular the growth of spatial mobility, depended on a dense and constantly adapting network of public houses. Travelling merchants, pilgrims and diplomats relied on their infrastructure just as much as burghers and peasants, who used them for nourishment, sociability and a vast spectrum of economic activities. The area under investigation includes beer and wine regions, rural and highly urbanized landscapes as well as a variety of political contexts. Speakers will approach the theme from different angles: what types of economic exchange were associated with the early modern tavern? To what extent did the material culture of drink reflect and enhance the growth of a consumer society? How important were public houses for state finance in this period? An introduction and a commentary will sketch wider implications of the findings and priorities for future research.

Part I  
Beat Kümin, University of Warwick, UK The public house in early modern Central Europe: An economic profile (Introduction)
Thomas Brennan, US Naval Academy, USA Rural taverns and economic exchange in early modern Champagne
James Brown, University of Warwick, UK Alehouses and the poor in early modern Southampton
Part II  
Peter Clark, University of Helsinki, Finland The problems of being a publican in eighteenth-century England
Luiz Carlos Soares, Fluminense Federal University, Brazil Public Houses, Enlightenment and commercialization of leisure in eighteenth-century England
Ann Tlusty (Bucknell University, USA) Comments

Location and time: Room 7 Main Building, 23 August 14.00-17.30

Working in the Shadow. Non-regular Economic Activities in Urban Europe (16th to early 20th Centuries)

Thomas Buchner, Dr., University of Linz, Austria
Philip R. Hoffmann, M.A., University of Konstanz, Germany

Thomas Buchner
Institut für Neuere Geschichte und Zeitgeschichte
Johannes Kepler Universität Linz
Altenberger Str. 69
A-4040 Linz, Austria
tel.: +43 732 2468 9327
fax: +43 732 2468 8443
e-mail: Thomas.Buchner@jku.at

This section examines the economic as well as the political and cultural dimension of non-regular economic activities in European urban societies from the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century. Although those economic activities, that are carried out beyond the official labour markets are no historically new phenomena, the so-called “shadow economies” have not yet been studied more closely and in a broader perspective by historians. A main reason for this neglect is that it has always been difficult to find a clear answer to the question, what kinds of economic activities should be regarded as non-regular respectively illicit and how they can be differentiated from the legitimate sector of the economy. Already before the rise of the modern welfare state there was a broad range of economic activities, which were regarded as non-regular (though not necessarily as illicit). Although they often constituted a necessary part of economic life, they also formed a highly controversial issue. The different and conflicting views about non-regular economic activities were strongly influenced by the attitudes towards work. Therefore, this section contributes to a general history of work as well as to recent discussions about the mechanisms of “shadow economies” in a historical and comparative perspective.

Part I Thomas Buchner: Introduction
Philip R. Hoffmann (University of Konstanz, Germany) Illicit artisan work as a political problem and as an epiphenomenon of economic crisis in early-modern German towns
Anne Montenach (Universite de Provence, France) "Formal" and "informal" economy in an urban context: food trade in 17th century Lyons
Patricia Allerston (University of Edinburgh, UK) An undisciplined activity? Lace production in early modern Venice
Christof Jeggle (University of Bamberg, Germany) Blurred Rules: Regulation and Practices of Production and Trade in the Linen Trades in seventeenth-century Munster/Westphalia
Part II  
Raingard Esser (UWE Bristol, UK) Between restriction and privilege: Immigrant work in Early Modern England
Jutta Nowosadtko (University of Essen, Germany) Working in the Shadow. Non-regular Economic Activities in Urban Europe (16th to early 20th Centuries)
Sigrid Wadauer (University of Salzburg, Austria) Work, non-work and negative work

Location and time: Room 14 Metsätalo building, 21 August 14.30-18.00

Mobilizing Money and Resources for War During the Early Modern Period

Agustín González Enciso, Universidad de Navarra, Spain
Huw Bowen, University of Leicester, United Kingdom
Patrick O'Brien, London School of Economics, United Kingdom

Agustín González Enciso
Facultad de Económicas y Empresariales
Universidad de Navarra
Pamplona, Navarra, 31080, Spain
tel.: +34 948 42 5625
fax: +34 948 42 5626
e-mail: agenciso@unav.es

In recent years considerable attention has been focussed upon the war-driven development of European states during the Early Modern period. In particular, some historians have attributed the long-run success of Britain to the emergence of a fiscal-militarystate whose essential characteristics were shaped by the increasingly heavy demands of war. This has generated much debate about the role, function, and form of the British state, and as such the model provided by the fiscal-military state offers a good point of departure for further discussion of the various ways in which European states endeavoured to organize national financial, material, and human resources for the conduct of lengthy and recurring periods of war. The aim of this session is to explore further the relationship between war and the development of the state by examining several states in a comparative perspective. It is hoped that individual papers will provide case studies of the ways in which resources were gathered, organized, and deployed in support of national war efforts that were becoming increasingly global in their scope and form. In particular, it is anticipated that the papers will explore the multifarious forms of relationship between the offices and departments of central government and the private agencies (contractors, companies, financiers, and firms) that played an essential role in mobilising the materials that crucially underpinned military and naval activity. By doing this, we expect that it will be possible to discern the different paths taken by public-private alliances in the European states, thereby enabling a better understanding to be gained of some of the underlying reasons why Britain ultimately succeeded in war when other powers failed.

Part I Mobilising money for war: about the fiscal military state, concept and realities
S. Conway, U. College London Checking and Controlling British Military Expenditure, 1739-1783
F. Grubb, U. of Delaware The Net Asset Position of the U.S. National Government, 1784-1802: Hamilton's Blessing or the Spoils of War?
J. Jurado Sánchez, U. Complutense, Madrid The Spanish National Budget in a warlike century. The treasury and economic impact of the military spending during the eighteenth century
P. O'Brien, London School of Economics The Triumph and Denouement of the British Fiscal State: Taxation for the Wars against Revolutionary and Napoleonic France, 1793-1815
S. Solbes Ferri, U. de Las Palmas Territorial Availability of the Financial Resources for War: The Treasuries of the Army in Bourbon Spain
M. t'Hart, U. of Amsterdam Warfare and public credit in eighteenth century Netherlands
R. Torres Sánchez, U. de Navarra Possibilities and limits: testing the in the Anglo-Spanish war of 1779-1783
Part II Mobilising resources in the wider world
J. Cuenca Esteban, U. of Waterloo Fiscal and military dimensions of Britain's regulated trade with Asia, 1765-1812
R. Harding, U. of Westminster An Expedition to Canada 1746: The Ideology and Organisation of Maritime Warfare
R. Knight, U. of Greenwich Victualling the British navy, 1793-1815
W. Lenk, U. Campinas, Brazil State and warfare in Portuguese Brazil during the Dutch war (1624-1654)
H. J. Paul, St. Andrews U. Joint-Stock Companies as the Sinews of War: The South Sea and Royal African Companies
P. Stern, American University The English East India Company, the British State, and the Fiscal Politics of Co-option, 1657-1757
J. Glete, U. Stockholm The Swedish fiscal-military state in transition and decline, 1650-1815

Location and time: Room 6 Metsätalo building, 25 August 9.00-12.30

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Industrialization in Middle Eastern European Regions during the XVIII and XIX Century

Toni Pierenkemper, Prof. Dr., Universität zu Köln, Germany
Zbigniew Kwasny, Prof. Dr., Uniwersytet Wroclawski, Poland
Milan Myska, Prof. Dr., Ostravské univerzity, Czech Republic

Toni Pierenkemper
Universität zu Köln
Seminar für Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte
Albertus-Magnus-Platz 1
D-50923 Köln, Germany
tel.: +49 2 21 470 2331
fax: +49 2 21 470 5209
e-mail: pierenkemper@wiso.uni-koeln.de

Today's economic historians focus primarily on Western Europe and North America, and to a much lesser extent on other regions of the world. Their focus thus is mainly on the recent history of industrial societies, rather than pre-industrial or proto-industrial periods. Some regions in East Central Europe had enjoyed, prior to the industrial period, much greater progress than was originally realized. This progress came about in part through close contact and competition with Western European regions. The proposed session aims to fill the gap in research represented by the lack of attention to these neglected periods and regions. It will both contribute to the specific history and achievements of the Eastern and Middle-European industrial regions since the 18th century, and help elaborate the theory of regional industrialization. The three initiators of this session have been engaged in this project for some time now. In their respective countries (Poland, the Czech Republic and Germany), they have researched and published on regional industrialization themselves, and initiated and supervised several research projects. They have built up a well-functioning network of personal contacts and corporate research projects as a useful basis for a successful session. They plan to extend this network by finding new contributors and initiating new research projects on additional regions in Middle East Europe.

Waclaw Dlugoborski (Poland) Zwei Revolutionen in der oberschlesischen Zinkindustrie
Klemens Skibicki Die oberschlesischen Magnaten als frühe Unternehmer
Marcel Boldorf (Germany) A Blind Alley for Development, Silesis's Textile Industry in the 19th Century
Lukas Fasora (Czech Republic) Die Tuchmacherzünfte unter dem Druck der Fabrikproduktion 1770-1848. Wirtschaftliche und soziale Aspekte ihres Niedergangs in drei mährischen Städten
Petr Popelka (Czech Republic) Motivation und Rentabilität des Eisenbahngewerbes in der Habsbugesmonarchie auf dem Beispiel der Eisenbahngesellschaften in Österreichisch-Schlesien
Vladimir Marek Die Ostrau-Karwiner Industrieregion seit Anfang des 19. Jahrhunderts
Ales Zaricky (Czech Republic) Der Aufstieg der Aktiengesellschaften im Ostrau-Karwiner Revier am Ende des 19. und zu Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts
Zbigniew Kwasny Die gewerbliche Entwicklung Niederschlesiens in der ersten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts außerhalb von Kohle und Leinen
Milan Myska Das Wiener Bankhaus Rothschild und das wirtschaftliche Wachstum Mährens und Österreichisch-Schlesiens
Toni Pierenkemper (Germany) Preußische Staatsunternehmen im Entwicklungsprozess. Ihre Rolle in Oberschlesien 1819-1843

Location and time: Aud XIII Main Building, 21 August 14.30-18.00

Beyond Market and Hierarchies: Networking Asian Merchants and Merchant Houses Since the 19th Century

Tomoko Shiroyama, Prof., Hitotsubashi University, Japan
Takashi Oishi, Prof., Kobe City University of Foreign Studies, Japan
Chi-cheung Choi, Dr., Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong

Tomoko Shiroyama
Graduate School of Economics
Hitotsubashi University
Naka 2-1 Kunitachi-shi
Tokyo 186-8601, Japan
tel: +81 42 580 8857
fax: +81 42 580 8882
e-mail: tshiro@econ.hit-u.ac.jp

Recent scholarship of Asian economic history has been focusing on the integration of regional economies, particularly on the Chinese, Indian, and Muslim sojourn merchants’ role in directing the flow of goods, labor, and capital since the mid-19th century. Institutional historians further argue that these Asian merchants relied heavily on network but were weak in hierarchy and corporate governance. It is the chain of long-term relations (kinship and other shared attributes such as religion, language, and place-of-origins) that enhances market efficiency by reducing transaction cost. However, “network” may also contribute to competition among participants and stress on their enterprises. This session, therefore, attempts to draw attention not to “network” per se but to the process of networking, Asian merchants’ construction and manipulation of linkages for their businesses. This session aims to stimulate dialogues between Asian and non-Asian specialists interested in business history, colonial history, and the integration of regional economy beyond the boundary of nation states, through asking the following comparative and historical questions: In engaging in intra-regional trade, is “network” more advantageous than other forms of transaction systems? How did long-term relationships survive or fail to survive economic crisis? How did changes of macro-political environment during colonization and de-colonization affect networking?

Part I Internal logics and organizations of merchants and merchant houses
Chi-cheung Choi, Chinese University of Hong Kong Hometown connection and the Chaozhou business networks: a case study of the Chens of Kintyelung, 1850-1950
Sayako Kanda, Keio University (Japan) Family, caste and beyond: The management techniques of Bengal salt merchants, c.1780-1840
Pui Tak Lee, The University of Hong Kong Voicing from afar: Family and Business Networks in the Late Nineteenth and Early of Twentieth Centuries
Hong Liu, University of Manchester (UK) Paradigm Shift in Overseas Chinese Entrepreneurship? Preliminary Observations and Critiques
Tsukasa Mizushima, University of Tokyo (Japan) Bringing Local Town into Global Economy: the Role of Nattukottai Chettiyars in the Malay Peninsula
Tomoko Shiroyama, Hitotsubashi University (Japan) Structures and Dynamics of Overseas Chinese Remittance in the Mid-Twentieth Century
Part II External environments and merchant networks
Laixing Chen, University of Hyogo (Japan) Structure and Flexibility in the Chinese Business Network: Chinese Chamber of Commerce Overseas
Naoto Kagotani, Kyoto University (Japan) The Indian merchants’ networks and Japan's Trade Recovery from the Great Depression in the 1930s
Man-houng Lin, Academia Sinica (Taiwan) Culture, Market, and State Power: Taiwanese Investment in Southeast Asia, 1895-1945
Claude Markovits, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France) Indian Merchant Networks and the British Empire: instrumentality and agency in a global imperial context
Takashi Oishi, Kobe City University of Foreign Studies (Japan) Comparative Perspectives on Indian merchants' intra-regional networks: A review from the state and "big business
Takako Ueda, Kinki University (Japan) The Change of Chinese migration in Northeast Asia 1860-1945
Chair: Tomoko Shiroyama
Commentator: Rajeswary Brown (University of London)

Location and time: Room 7 Main Building, 24 August 14.00-17.30

Cooperative Enterprises and Cooperative Networks: Successes and Failures

Vera Zamagni, Prof., University of Bologna, Italy
Michael Prinz, Prof., University of Bielefeld, Germany

Vera Zamagni
Department of Economics
University of Bologna
Piazza Scaravilli 2
40126 Bologna, Italy
tel.: +39 51 2098134
fax: +39 51 221968
e-mail: veste@economia.unibo.it

The general purpose of this session is to place the history of the economic achievements of the cooperative movement present in many countries within a general and comparative context, centered around the creation of viable enterprises. All the enterprises – and their networks – that are recognized in each country as belonging to the cooperative movement can be considered, whatever their legal form, that can be quite different from country to country. No limitation of time periods is imposed, but papers covering longer runs of history are encouraged. No restriction of sectors or size of the enterprises is envisaged, but papers offering more comprehensive accounts are preferred. Two additional more specific aims are envisaged:
a) an identification across countries on the one side of the factors that have supported the successful flourishing of cooperative enterprises and networks and on the other side of the causes responsible for decline and dropping off;
b) the building up of an international group of scholars who do work on cooperative enterprises, which can in the future project research in this field that badly needs a comparative approach.

Patrizia Battilani, University of Bologna, Italy The building of new entities: stakeholders and shareholders in XIX century Italian cooperatives
Candido Roman Cervantes, University of La laguna, Spain The choice between solidarity and profits: agrarian transformation societies in Spain (1940-2000)
Margarida Fernandes, New University of Lisbon, Portugal Farm cooperatives and state policies in Portugal after the Carnation’s Revolution
Murray Fulton, Jason Heit & Brett Fairbairn (University of Saskatchewan, Canada) The changing landscape of Co-operatives in North America
Timothy Guinnane, Yale University, USA State Support for the German Cooperative Movement, 1850-1914
Jost W. Kramer, Hochschule Wismar, Germany Co-operative development and corporate governance structures in German cooperatives. Problems and perspectives
Michael Prinz, University of Bielefeld Why German consumer coops failed: a long term perspective
Even Lange, Eivind Merok (University of Oslo, Norway) National configuration of an international movement: the Norwegian consumer cooperatives
Andrea Leonardi, University of Trento, Italy Italian credit cooperatives between expansion and retrenchment (1890-1940)
Angel Pascual Martínez Soto (Univ. of Murcia) & Susana Martínez Rodriguez (Autonomy Univ. of Barcelona) The difficult and tortuous path of agricultural cooperative networks in Spain, 1890-1935
Vera Zamagni, University of Bologna, Italy Italy’s cooperatives from marginality to success (1951-2001)
Banishree Das, Nirod K. Palai & Kumar Das (India/Thailand) Problems and Prospects of the Cooperative Movement in India under the Globalization Regime
Commentators: Harm Schröter (University of Bergen), Fiorenzo Landi (University of Bologna)

Location and time: Room 10 Main Building, 25 August 9.00-12.30

Evolution of Forms of Property Since 1945: A Cross-National Approach in Historical Retrospective

Martin J. Daunton, Prof., University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
Vladimir A. Vinogradov, Ph.D., Russian Academy of Sciences (INION RAN), Russia
Sergei Y. Veselovsky, M.A., Russian Academy of Sciences (INION RAN), Russia

Sergei Y. Veselovsky
117418 Nakhimovski prosp.
51/21, Moscow, Russia
tel.: +7 095 921 2568
fax: +7 095 937 9085
e-mail: veselovsky@mail.ru

The aim of the session is to set a panel for discussions on crucial issues of forms of property transformations in different countries in the second half of the XX century, including both nationalization policies in some European economies after the WWII, and privatization policies, which have become the major economic trend in the 80s and 90s throughout the world, and which in many cases amounted to an attempt to roll back the economic frontiers of the state. The emphasis of the discussion is planned to be made on reconsideration of the nature and role of the state sector in developed and emerging market economies that was resolved in favor of neo-liberal view that government involvement in economic activities has become too excessive and non-efficient. The topics to be discussed will presumably include considerations for the reasons for nationalizations and privatizations; institutional, organizational, social, and political prerequisites of as well as limitations to privatization programs in developed and transitional market economies; different national practices of privatization of natural monopolies operating in the sphere of public utilities (so called "network industries"); peculiarities of large-scale privatization in Russia and in Central and Eastern Europe, including property rights issues and public ownership transformation under low-competitive markets; ideology and practice of "people's capitalism", including issues of ESOP, co-operatives, as well as other issues of mutual forms of property such as building societies or savings and loan associations, and the changes in their structure, etc.

Part I Opening of the session: M. Daunton and Sergei Veselovsky (chairs)
Sergei Veselovsky, INION, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia Privatization as a Global Process of Re-Evaluation of Public/Private Balance in the Economies
Michael J. Oliver (Ecole Superieure de Commerce de Rennes) and Chris Collins (UK) One of Britain's Most Successful Exports: The Origins of the British Privatization Strategy
Robert Millward, University of Manchester, UK The Rise and Fall of State Enterprise in Western Europe 1945-90: Ideology or Technology or Economics?
Martin Chick, University of Edinburgh, UK Ownership, Pricing, and Social Control in the British, French and American Energy Industries Since 1945
Part II  
Vladimir Vinogradov, INION RAN, Russian Academy of Sciences Public Ownership Transformation in Russia in the Second Half of the XX Century
Kaisyn Khubiev, Moscow State University, Russia Transformation of ownership rights in Russia at the end of the 90s of the XX century: Theoretic bases and practical solutions
Martin Daunton, Cambridge University, UK The consumer in public and private enterprises in 20th century Britain
Jim Tomlinson, University of Dundee, UK Public ownership in post-war Britain: one instrument, too many objectives?

Location and time: Room 7 Main Building, 22 August 9.00-12.30

The Evolution of Business Organisation

Aurora Gómez Galvarriato, Dr., División de Economía - CIDE, Mexico
John Turner, Dr., Queen's University of Belfast, United Kingdom

John Turner
School of Management and Economics
Queen's University of Belfast
Belfast, BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland
tel.: +44 28 90973791
fax: +44 28 90975156
e-mail: j.turner@qub.ac.uk

This session will examine the evolution of business organisation in various economies over the last three hundred years. As a significant proportion of economic activity takes place within business organisations, the historical development of business organisation is an important topic of study. The five main questions to be addressed are: (a) what impact did legal innovation have on the evolution of business organisation?; (b) how did early companies solve agency or governance problems?; (c) how important was limited liability in the development of the modern corporation?; (d) what determines the organisational form chosen by entrepreneurs?; (e) are innovations in organisational form followed by economic development?
The session papers are available on the session's own website at www.qub.ac.uk/mgt/efirg/IEHA.htm

Part I Chair: Aurora Gómez Galvarriato
Mark Freeman (U of Glasgow), Robin Pearson (U of Hull), James Taylor (U of Central Lancashire) The Limitation of Liability in British Joint-Stock Companies, 1720-1844
Timothy Guinnane (Yale U), Ron Harris (Tel Aviv U), Naomi Lamoreaux & Jean-Laurent Rosenthal (UCLA) Business Organisation in the Long Run: The Private Limited Liability Company
Graeme Acheson, Charles Hickson, John Turner (Queen's U Belfast) Does Limited Liability Matter?: Evidence from Nineteenth-Century British Banking
Part II Chair: John Turner
Aurora Gómez Galvarriato (CIDE), Aldo Musacchio (Harvard) Partnerships, Corporations and the Chartering of Business in Mexico, 1886-1910
Gonzalo Castañeda (UDLA) Business Networks and the Rigidity of Labor Markets: The Changes Observed in their Organizational Architecture in the Mexican Post-Revolutionary Period
J. Carles Maixé-Altés (Universidad de A Coruña) Regulatory Change, Corporate Governance and Competitive Edge in a Non-Profit Commercial Organizations: The Case of Spanish Savings Banks

Location and time: Room 5 Main Building, 21 August 14.30-18.00

The Economics of Widowhood

Beatrice Moring, Dr., University of Essex, United Kingdom

Beatrice Moring
University of Essex
Department of History
Wivenhoe Park
Colchester CO4 3SQ, United Kingdom
e-mail: richardw@essex.ac.uk

The presentations of the session will focus on strategies adopted by families and individuals to secure the survival and well-being of widows in a historical perspective. Some of the questions raised will be the control of assets by widows, the balancing of the economic needs of the widow and the children in relation to inheritance practices, concepts of divisibility or indivisibility of property and the effect of local and general economic trends on the economic position of widows.

Antoinette Fauve-Chamoux, EHESS, France Female Property in Widowhood during Ancien Regime: From Paris to Rural Pyrenees
Dana Stefanova, University of Vienna, Austria Widows: Outsiders in the rural economy? The example of the estate of Frydlant 1558-1750
Richard Wall, University of Essex, UK Bequests to Widows and their Property in Early Modern England
Beatrice Moring, University of Essex, UK The Family and Widowhood in the Nordic Past. The Economic Position of Widows in Finland and Sweden
Martin Dribe, Christer Lundh (University of Lund) & Paul Nystedt (Linköping University, Sweden) Gendered Strategies of Well-being in Widowhood: The Case of 19th-century Rural Sweden
Moto Takahashi, Ehime University, Japan Wills of Men and Women in Canterbury and York 1380-1800
Chair: Beatrice Moring
Commentator: Richard Wall

Location and time: Room 8 Main Building, 23 August 14.00-17.30

Biological Standards of Living in the Developing World

Moramay Lopez-Alonso, Prof., Rice University, Department of History, USA

Moramay Lopez-Alonso
Rice University
History Department-MS #42
PO Box 1892
Houston, TX 77251-1892, USA
tel.: 858 692 8891
e-mail: moramay@rice.edu

The purpose of this panel is to present the most recent findings of studies on the biological living standards in developing countries during the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In the rapidly growing scholarship on biological standards of living, the study of the developing nations’ cases can be considered the frontier of the field. The findings presented in this panel will be an opportunity to learn how the evolution of living standards took place in India, Colombia and Mexico and see if there are any similarities or not between these experiences. This is an interesting period of study for these three countries as it covers the end of the pre-industrial era and the industrialization process, in addition these are countries with marked income disparities. Moreover this panel will be an opportunity to share ideas an experiences on how to overcome the obstacles of data gathering for this part of the world. Record keeping is costly and, more often than not, developing nations did not have the resources to keep a thorough record of the information produced by the main institutions from which economic historians normally draw their data, therefore creating data bases of heights and other relevant variables to the study of biological standards of living normally takes additional efforts on finding sources of information.

Aravinda Meera Guntupalli & Joerg Baten, University of Tübingen, (Germany) The Development and Inequality of Heights in North, West and East India 1915-44
Adolfo Meisel Roca and Margarita Vega, Banco de la República (Colombia) The Stature of the Colombian Elite before the onset of Industrialization, 1870-1919
Joerg Baten, University of Tübingen (Germany) Global Height Trends in Industrial and Developing Countries, 1810-1984: An Overview
Alexander Moradi, University of Oxford (United Kingdom) Nutritional status and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa, 1950-1980
Dorothee Crayen (Cape Town/South Africa and Tübingen/Germany) The Apartheid Puzzle: Did the white living standard decline in times of economic growth?
Moramay Lopez-Alonso, Rice University (USA) A History of Poverty and Inequality in MExico, 1840-1940: An Anthropometric Approach
José Miguel Martínez Carrión, Universidad de Murcia (Spain) Biological Standards of Living in the Frontier of the Development: The Case of Spain
Kris Inwood & Oliver Masakure (University of Guelph, Canada) The Determinants of Physical Stature in South Africa circa 1860-1918
Chair: Moramay López-Alonso, Rice University (USA)
Commentator: Marco Sunder, University of Munich (Germany)

Location and time: Room 7 Main Building, 21 August 14.30-18.00

Living Standards in Europe and Asia, 1700-1900 - when the Divergence Between the East and the West Emerged

Tommy Bengtsson, Prof., Lund University, Sweden
Martin Dribe, Prof., Lund University, Sweden
James Lee, Prof., University of Michigan, USA

Tommy Bengtsson
Department of Economic History
PO Box 7083
SE-200 07 Lund, Sweden
tel.: +46 46 222 7380
fax: +46 46 222 7339
e-mail: Tommy.Bengtsson@ekh.lu.se

Why did Europe experience industrialisation and modern economic growth before China, India or Japan? This is one of the most fundamental questions in Economic History and one that has provoked intense debate. The main concern of this session is to determine when the gap in living standards between the East and the West emerged. The established view, dating back to Adam Smith, is that the gap emerged long before the Industrial Revolution, perhaps thousands of years ago. While this view has been called into question – and many of the explanations for it greatly undermined – the issue demands much more empirical research than has yet been undertaken. How did the standard of living in Europe and Asia compare in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? The session proposes an answer by using evidence of various sorts: (1) economic, focusing on income, food production, wages, and prices, (2) demographic, comparing heights, life expectancy and other demographic indicators and (3) demographic vulnerability to short-term economic stress. It will not only focus on national averages but also advocate analyses at lower regional levels and for different social classes and household systems. In this respect it will draw on the results from the Eurasia Project on Population and Family History comparing the economic and demographic conditions in locations in various parts of Europe and Asia.
The session is organized as presentations based on one or several of the chapters of two recent books (see below) and papers related to these books. The intention is not to present the chapters of the book per see but to reflect on the subject. [Allen, Bengtsson, and Dribe (eds) Living Standards in the Past. New Perspective on Well-being in Asia and Europe. Oxford: OUP Press. 2005 (LSP). AND Bengtsson, Campbell, Lee et al Life Under Pressure. Mortality and Living Standards in Europe and Asia, 1700-1900. Cambridge, Ma.: MIT Press 2004 (LUP).]

Part I Economic indicators
Chair: Jamie Reis (University of Lisbon)
Robert C. Allen, Oxford University The High Wage Economy of Pre-Industrial Britain
Kenneth Pomeranz, University of California, Irvine Standards of Living in Rural and Urban China: Mid-18th and Early Twentieth Centuries
Philip T. Hoffman, California Institute of Technology What do prices and incomes tell us about the differences between Europe and Asia
Part II Response to short-term economic stress
Chair: Tommy Bengtsson (Lund University)
James Z. Lee, University of Michigan Life Under Pressure - mortality response in Europe and Asia
Tommy Bengtsson & Martin Dribe (Lund University) Economic Stress and Timing of Childbirth in Europe and Asia
Michel Oris, University of Geneva Conscious and Non-Conscious Demographic Response to Economic Stress in 19th Century Belgium
Commentator: Peter H. Lindert (University of California, Davis), Tony Wrigley (Cambridge University, UK)

Location and time: Room 5 Main Building, 22 August 14.00-17.30

Systems of Small and Middle Size Enterprises in Latin America and Southern Europe (XIX-XX Centuries)

Mario Cerutti, Prof., Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Mexico
María Inés Barbero, Prof., Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
Javier Vidal Olivares, Prof., Universidad de Alicante, Spain

María Inés Barbero
Pirovano 221, (1640) Martínez
Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina
tel.: +5411 4792 5857
e-mail: mbarbero@fibertel.com.ar

The session proposal registers in the field of Economic and Business History and its objective is the study of the small and medium companies and of the productive networks in a compared and long term perspective. Diverse scholars have stressed that although along the XIX and XX centuries it took place the birth and consolidation of big modern business, the small and medium firms have lasted and they have played an outstanding role in the economy, particularly thanks to their articulation in strongly taken root cooperation networks embedded in their territories. From Alfred's Marshall pioneer work, local productive systems have been recognized as specific forms of business organization, in those that the external economies constitute an essential component in the construction of competitive advantages. In the session diverse historical experiences will be analyzed in countries of Latin America and Southern Europe. This main areas share important influences of cultural values and institutional environment. One of their objectives will be to contribute to theoretical debate on networks and business systems starting from the confrontation of the empiric evidence with papers dealing with the concepts that have been elaborated by the literature specialized in the topic.

Josep Antoni Ybarra (Universidad de Alicante, Spain) Los distritos industriales en el desarrollo local valenciano
Jesús Santa María Beneyto, José Miguel Giner Pérez & Antonio Fuster Olivares (Universidad de Alicante, Spain) Los sistemas productivos locales en la comunidad valenciana: dinámica y estrategias competitivas
Mónica Campins & Ana Teresa Pfeiffer (Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina) Un sistema de pequeñas y medianas empresas en la industria farmacéutica en la Argentina
Paola Cappellin & Gian Mario Giuliani (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) Empresas de porte medio: fontes e imagens culturais entre Italia e Brasil
Arturo Carrillo (Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Mexico) Las empresas hortícolas de exportación en el Noroeste de México. Surgimiento y desarrollo de un sistema productivo agrícola
Leonardo Caruana (Universidad San Pablo-CEU, Spain), Carlos Larrinaga (Universidad del País Vasco, Spain), & Juan Manuel Matés (Universidad de Jaén, Spain) Small and medium industrial firms in Spain since 1959 up to 1975. Their relevance to achieve the Spanish Industrial Revolution
Adriana Castagnoli (Università di Torino, Italy) Behind family business: women entrepreneurs and the small and medium firms in Italy
Mario Cerutti (Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Mexico) Tejido productivo y redes empresariales en el norte de México. Tres experiencias regionales
Paloma Fernández Pérez (Universitat de Barcelona, Spain) A Kingdom of Small and Medium Entrepreneurship: An Approach to the Study of Iron and Steel Metal Transformation in Spain
Carina Frid (Universidad Nacional de Rosario-CONICET, Argentina) Pequeñas y globales. La red empresarial mercantil-manufacturera y los consumos alimentarios en los circuitos agrarios pampeanos (1870-1914)
Lina Gálvez (Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Spain), Joaquim Cuevas, (Universidad de Alicante, Spain) & Lluís Torró (Universidad de Alicante, Spain) Integration or Cooperation: The impact of the Spanish Civil War (1936-39) in the networkwork structure of Alcoi textile firms
Norma Lanciotti (Universidad Nacional de Rosario- CONICET, Argentina) Modalidades de organización y prácticas de negocios del pequeño y mediano empresariado inmobiliario en las ciudades argentinas, 1870-1910
Gladys Lizama (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico) Compañía Anónima del Ferrocarril Guadalajara a San Pedro, Siglo XIX
Andrea Lluch (Universidad Nacional de La Pampa-CONICET, Argentina) Redes y empresas en la comercialización de bienes de consumo importados en la Argentina, 1900-1940
Alda Mourao (Universidad de Coimbra, Portugal) Pequena e micro empresa num processo de modernização económico: Leiria, 1850-1914
Marcelo Rougier (Universidad de Buenos Aires-CONICET, Argentina) Encadenamientos productivos entre el agro y la industria. La fábrica de cosechadoras Vassalli en el sur de Santa Fe, Argentina
Maria Irene de Q.F. Szmrecsanyi (Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil) and Mauro Claro (Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Brazil) Between capitalism and socialism: a French model of a self-managing network of companies in the Brazilian industrialization of the mid-twentieth century
José María Ortiz Villajos (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain) The international diffusion of the gas engine: Crossley Brothers and their partners in Spain, 1867-1935
Sergio Valerio Ulloa (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico) Las "Fábricas de Francia"
Javier Vidal Olivares (Universidad de Alicante, Spain) Open Skies. Small and Middle-Size airlines in Spanish Market, 1959-1994
Commentators: José Luis García Ruiz (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain), Jorma Ahvenainen (Jyväskylä University, Finland)

Location and time: Room 10 Main Building, 25 August 14.00-17.30

Labor-Intensive Industrialization in Global History: East Asia and Beyond

Kenneth Pomeranz, Prof., University of California - Irvine, USA
Kaoru Sugihara, Prof., Osaka University, Japan

Kenneth Pomeranz
Department of History
200 Krieger Hall
University of California, Irvine
CA 92697-3275, USA
tel.: +1 949 824 5169
fax: +1 949 824 2865
e-mail: klpomera@uci.edu

Some recent literature suggests that large differences in labor productivity, living standards, etc., between the North Atlantic countries and parts of East Asia came about considerably later than we had previously thought. Meanwhile, a separate but related literature suggests ways in which the 20th century "East Asian miracle" relied upon earlier patterns of labor-intensive development, rather than simply adopting Western technologies and institutions. Together these approaches allow us to reassess the role of internal and external factors in East Asia's long-term development; to examine the relevance of East Asia's "labor-intensive industrialization" as a path to economic development for contemporary societies with per capita resource endowments more like 19th century East Asia's than the 19th century West's; and to re-think North Atlantic development as one path to modernity, rather than the defining case of "development." Diffusionists link development to institutions and technologies which are Western but universally applicable. World systems theorists argue that "core" nations have monopolized the world economy's desirable niches, locking "peripheral" societies into supplying cheap raw materials and labor. Both stories are Europe-driven. Our work suggests that East Asia managed to continue distinct, labor-intensive development paths, which fit its factor endowments, and ultimately influenced Western economies as well.

Part I  
Kaoru Sugihara, Kyoto University The Human Resource Path of Economic Development: A Perspective from Asian Experiences
Kenneth Pomeranz, University of California, Irvine Labor Intensive Industrialization in the Yangzi Delta: Late Imperial Patterns and their Modern Fates
Tirthankar Roy, Gokhale Institute (Delhi) Japan and the Crisis in Cotton Mills in Interwar Bombay: The Role of Labor Institutions
Part II  
Gareth Austen, London School of Economics  
Masayuki Tanimoto  
Patrick O'Brien, London School of Economics  

Location and time: Room 6 Main Building, 23 August 14.00-17.30

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The Second Industrial Revolution and the Emergence of Contemporary Science and Technology Policies

Albert Broder, Prof., Université de Paris XII Val-de-Marne, Créteil, France
Tamás Szmrecsányi, Prof., Science Policy Department of UNICAMP, Brazil
Henri Delanghe, Dr., Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium

Henri Delanghe
Emmanuel Mertensstraat 24
1150 Brussels, Belgium
tel./fax: +32 2 772 3701
e-mail: h_delanghe@yahoo.com

This session will be intended to propel the launching of a recently begun international research project on "The interplay of knowledge with power, development and competition: an economic-historical study of the emergence of current science and technology policies in Western Europe (France, Germany, UK), the United States, Russia and Japan". The countries that we have chosen as paradigms indicate that we are fundamentally interested in assessing and comparing the origins and evolution of the science and technology policies established and practiced by the present day most advanced economies and societies. The main features of these policies, formulated and undertaken by both governments and private enterprises, will be examined within an institutional perspective, basically focused on the organisation and working patterns of their R&D centres and their relationships with their other changing economic and social entities and activities, all this without forgetting the intellectual evolution of the concerned scientific disciplines and/or technological fields. As for the period under analysis, we shall be fundamentally concentrated in the formative years of the aforementioned structures and policies, which in our view include the last decade of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth. We take the Second Industrial Revolution as a starting point because, contrarily to the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries ' First Industrial Revolution, it was conditioned from its very beginnings not only by the advent of genuinely science-based technologies, but also - and perhaps mainly - by their deliberate adoption in production. These features lead us therefore to the beginning of the current big science and big technology prevailing in the most developed countries. And conversely this period of our choice also coincided through time with the intensification of worldwide economic fluctuations and of the capital centralisation that led to the emergence of big business on the one hand, and to the advent of (or return to) increasing state interventionism on the other.

Broder, Albert Quelques réflexions sur les instruments permettant de lier le commerce extérieur et la structure industrielle nationale: Le cas de la France 1880-1930
Cadi, Clotilde Une grande famille allemande au service de l’électrotechnique: les Siemens (1890-1945)
Dray, Vincent Les élites techniques, le développement et les transferts de technologies: moyens scientifiques, techniques et capacités d’adaptation dans les secteurs industriels innovants en France de 1914 à 1940
Inkster, Ian Policies, patents and reliable knowledge – a comparative approach to the climacteric 1870-1914
Lamoreaux, Naomi R. & Kenneth L. Sokoloff The decline of the independent inventor: a Schumpeterian story?
Langlinay, Erik A political policy research: France, Germany and the construction of a national chemical industry (1914-1928)
Le Roux, Muriel The emergence of contemporary science and technology policies in France during the first half of the 20th century: The power of relationships
Szmrecsányi, Tamás On the Historicity of the Second Industrial Revolution and the Applicability of its Concept to the Russian Economy Before 1917
Touchelay, Béatrice De la mécanographie à l’informatique en France -années 1890 - années 1960: la formation d’une nébuleuse propice aux transformations technologiques en marge de l’état - les conditions de la modernité
Vanoverbeke, Dimitri Law and economic policy in interwar Japan: from innovation in farming to innovation in industry

Location and time: Room 6 Metsätalo building, 24 August 9.00-12.30

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Last updated on 21 October 2006