Helsingin yliopisto, humanistinen tiedekunta
Helsingfors universitet, humanistiska fakulteten


Valintakoetehtävät 2005 / Urvalsuppgifter 2005

Valintakokeen vaatimukset ja kokeen luonne:

  1. Yule, George: The Study of Language. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press 1996 tai myöh.
  2. Downes, William: Language and Society. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press.
  3. Barker, Pat: Regeneration. Penguin Books.

Kokeessa edellytetään englannin kielen rakenteen ja sanaston hyvää tuntemusta sekä kykyä omaksua, tuottaa ja analysoida englanninkielistä tekstiä. Koe muodostuu edellä mainittuja seikkoja testaavista tehtävistä:
a) englannin kielianalyysi (0-2),
b) Yulen teokseen pohjautuva tehtävä (0-3),
c) englanninkielinen tekstianalyysi Downesin kirjan pohjalta (0-2),
d) esseekysymys ja tekstikatkelman analysointi Barkerin romaanista (0-3).

Kaikkiin tehtäviin vastataan englanniksi. Osassa d) otetaan kaunokirjallisen analyysin lisäksi huomioon myös argumentointikyky ja kielitaito. Kokeen kaikista osista on selviydyttävä hyväksyttävästi. Osa on hyväksyttävästi suoritettu, jos hakija saa vähintään 1/3 sen maksimipistemäärästä.

Huomautus: Voit halutessasi hakea sekä englantilaiseen filologiaan että englannin aineenopettajan koulutusohjelmaan. Englantilaisen filologian valintakoe on sama koe kuin englannin aineenopettajan koulutusohjelman kirjallinen koe.

Fordringar och provtyp:

  1. Yule, George: The Study of Language. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press, 1996 eller senare upplaga.
  2. Downes, William: Language and Society. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press.
  3. Barker, Pat: Regeneration. Penguin Books.

Provet förutsätter god kännedom om strukturen och ordför¬rådet i engelskan samt förmåga att tillägna sig, producera och analysera text på engelska. Provet består av uppgifter som testar sagda färdigheter:
a) engelsk språkanalys (0-2),
b) uppgift som baserar sig på Yules bok (0-3),
c) engelskspråkig textanalys som baserar sig på Downes bok (0-2),
d) essäfråga samt analys av textavsnitt från Barkers roman (0-3).

Alla frågor besvaras på engelska. I del d) beaktas förutom den skönlitterära analysen även argumentationsförmågan samt språkfärdigheten. Sökanden måste få godkännbart resultat i provets alla delar. Delprovets resultat är godkännbart om sökanden får minst 1/3 av delprovets maximala poängtal.

Anmärkningar: Om du vill kan du söka till både engelsk filologi och utbildningsprogrammet för ämneslärare i engelska. Urvalsprovet för engelsk filologi är samma som det skriftliga provet för utbildningsprogrammet för ämneslärare i engelska.

Koetehtävät / Provuppgifter

PART 1. English language skills, 0-2 points

1.1. Correct errors in spelling, word order and grammar. Improve the sentence structure by eliminating unnecessary repetition and other forms of wordiness by using shorter expressions. Remember proper punctuation. Write above the lines. You can continue below the text or on the other side of this sheet, if necessary.

Nobody was in the room. A fly was only buzzing somewhere near the high painted-white ceiling. John with his bunch of friends entered into room. John and his friends had studied the books, that theirs teacher telling them to read, all the afternoon. To sit there had been hot. They had also founded to sit in a library extremely boring. Was time to enjoy the finally earned free-evening. They knew that some time would take before Mary will come. They supposed that Marys only brother who’s name was Bill had promised to bring some crates of bear them. Then Mary with her brother Bill what come with the car drived to the door. Any bear wasnt there. Mary was angry and her brother was angry. Mary and her brother had been all the way argueing while Mary and her brother had been driving from the shop home because brother forgotten buying the bottles to John and the boys. Mary sed you need new head. The most of people remember so simple thing what you supposed to do.

1.2. Write the ordinary orthography for the following words and explain what they mean. You can also give alternative words that are pronounced in the same way, if there are any.

Example: /teil/ tale ‘a story’ (also tail ‘the back end of a dog’)

1.3. Briefly answer the following questions:

  1. What is the difference between a couch and a coach?
  2. What is the difference in meaning between the statements below?
    Anybody can do it. Nobody can do it. Somebody can do it. Everybody can do it.
  3. When do you say please in English?

PART 2. Questions based on “The Study of Language” by George Yule, 0- 3 points

Answer all questions by circling the letter of the correct alternative. There is only one correct answer for each question. If you choose more than one answer, you will receive 0 points.

  1. The Sumerians used a writing system described as cuneiform writing. The symbols they used are called
    a. pictograms
    b. logograms
    c. ideograms
    d. characters

  2. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
    a. In Phoenician, writing is read from right to left
    b. Modern Arabic is read from right to left
    c. Roman writing is read from left to right
    d. Egyptian hieroglyphics are read from left to right

  3. The property of human language called ’displacement’ means
    a. That there is no ’natural’ connection between a linguistic form and its meaning
    b. That the message relates to an immediate time and place
    c. That the message can refer to past and future time, and to other locations
    d. That novel utterances are continually being created

  4. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
    a. In most languages, the majority of linguistic expressions are arbitrary
    b. Animal signalling can be very flexible
    c. Onomatopoeic expressions form a large percentage of words in most human languages
    d. The potential number of utterances in any human language is fixed

  5. The initial sound in words like shoot and chess is called
    a. alveo-palatal
    b. labiodental
    c. alveolar
    d. velar

  6. The initial sound in words like pet and bet is called
    a. labiodental
    b. interdental
    c. bilabial
    d. dental

  7. The sound [f] has the features
    a. +voice, +labiodental, +fricative
    b. -voice, +labiodental, +fricative
    c. -voice, +dental, +fricative
    d. +voice, +alveolar, +stop

  8. The [t] sounds in the words take and stake are
    a. a minimal pair
    b. meaning-distinguishing sounds
    c. two phones of the phoneme /t/
    d. two phonemes of the phone /t/

  9. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
    a. he is an open syllable
    b. no has a nucleus and a coda
    c. us is a closed syllable
    d. we has an onset and a nucleus

  10. In the pronunciation of words like friendship and aspects, what usually happens?
    a. elision
    b. assimilation
    c. nasalization
    d. isolation

  11. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
    a. scuba is an example of an acronym
    b. unfuckingbelievable contains an infix
    c. televise is an example of conversion
    d. movie is an example of hypocorism

  12. The word unfortunately contains
    a. two morphemes
    b. three morphemes
    c. four morphemes
    d. five morphemes

  13. The word healthier contains which sequence of morphemes?
    a. stem+suffix+suffix+suffix
    b. prefix+stem+suffix
    c. stem+ suffix
    d. stem+prefix+prefix

  14. Which of the following statements about the suffix form –er is FALSE?
    a. It is an inflectional morpheme
    b. It is a derivational morpheme
    c. It is a bound morpheme
    d. It is a functional morpheme

  15. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
    a. Structural analysis is a type of prescriptive approach to grammar
    b. A descriptive approach to grammar is based on grammatical descriptions of Latin and Greek
    c. A prescriptive approach to grammar can be viewed as a set of rules for the proper use of a language
    d. A descriptive approach to grammar can be viewed as a set of rules for the proper use of a language

  16. The sentences Otto made this shovel and This shovel was made by Otto
    a. share the same surface structure
    b. share the same deep structure
    c. are both structurally ambiguous
    d. are both in the passive voice

  17. Which of the following statements about semantic roles is FALSE?
    a. The theme can be an entity that is described
    b. The agent is always human
    c. The theme can also be human
    d. An entity used in performing an action is the instrument

  18. What is the lexical relationship between the words animal and cat?
    a. cat is a hyponym of animal
    b. animal is a hyponym of cat
    c. They are antonyms
    d. They are reversives

  19. In the sentence A pale girl was carrying a pail of water, pale and pail are
    a. homonyms
    b. homophones
    c. synonyms
    d. prototypes

  20. Which of the following pairs is gradable?
    a. fail – pass
    b. absent – present
    c. true – false
    d. fair – unfair

  21. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
    a. Linguistic context is also known as co-text
    b. Pragmatics studies the meaning in language as a product of the meaning of words
    c. Pragmatics is the study of ‘intended speaker meaning’
    d. Pragmatics is the study of ‘invisible’ meaning

  22. In the sequence Have you seen Anna? Yes, she just left
    a. Anna is the anaphora and she is the antedecent
    b. Anna is the antedecent and she is the anaphora
    c. Anna is the inference and she is the reference
    d. Anna is the reference and she is the inference

  23. Which of the following statements is FALSE? In pragmatics, a person’s face is
    a. his/her public self-image
    b. the emotional and social sense of others that every person has
    c. the most relevant concept in linguistic politeness
    d. both negative and positive

  24. Grice’s statement: “Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged” is known as
    a. The Quantity Maxim
    b. The Quality Maxim
    c. The Maxim of Relation
    d. The co-operative principle

  25. If a person has suffered brain damage, and as a result has difficulty in comprehending speech, the damaged area is likely to be
    a. Wernicke’s area
    b. Broca’s area
    c. The motor cortex
    d. The right hemisphere

  26. Which of the following statements about caretaker speech is FALSE?
    a. caretaker speech usually does not assign an interactive role to the child before the child becomes a speaking participant
    b. caretaker speech is characterised by a lot of repetition
    c. caretaker speech is characterised by simplified sentence structure
    d. caretaker speech is also referred to as ’motherese’

  27. Though the process of language acquisition continues through childhood, it is assumed that a child has completed the greater part of it by which age?
    a. four
    b. five
    c. six
    d. seven

  28. Which of the following statements about second language (L2) learning is FALSE?
    a. communicative competence can be defined as the ability to use L2 accurately, appropriately and flexibly
    b. The ability to organise a message effectively and to compensate for any difficulties via strategies is called strategic competence
    c. The accurate use of words and structures in L2 is called grammatical competence
    d. Sociolinguistic competence is the ability to overcome potential communication problems in interaction

  29. When arranging languages according to the number of their native speakers, so that the language with most native speakers comes first, which of the following is a correct sequence?
    a. Chinese, Spanish, English, Arabic
    b. English, Spanish, Russian, Hindi
    c. English, Spanish, Hindi, Arabic
    d. Chinese, English, Arabic, Hindi

  30. Which of the following statements about the linguistic history of England is TRUE?
    a. The Middle English period ended with the Battle of Hastings
    b. The Old English period started with the Viking settlements
    c. Latin loan-words were adopted with the conversion of Anglo-Saxons between the 6th and 8th centuries
    d. The tribes of Angles, Saxons and Jutes invaded the British Isles in the 1st century AD

  31. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
    a. With the arrival of the Norman French, French became the language of government and law in England
    b. Angel and candle are words that entered the language with the arrival of the Norman French
    c. The word pairs sheep-mutton and cow-beef are a result of class distinctions after the Norman Conquest
    d. With the arrival of the French-speaking invaders, French became the language of the nobility and civilized behaviour in England

  32. The process by which Old English bridd became modern English bird is known as
    a. epenthesis
    b. prothesis
    c. lexical change
    d. metathesis

  33. Which of the following statements concerning standard language is FALSE? Standard language…
    a. usually develops from a prestigious variety connected with a political or cultural centre
    b. is, from a purely linguistic point of view, no better than other varieties
    c. is the variety used in most newspapers and schools
    d. tends to be more easily described in terms of spoken language than written language

  34. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
    a. It is estimated that there are between 10 to 17 million speakers of Creoles today
    b. Tok Pisin is used by over a million people
    c. A Creole develops as the first language of the children of Pidgin speakers
    d. A French-based Creole is used in Jamaica and Sierra Leone

  35. ‘Decreolisation’ means
    a. The development from a Pidgin to a Creole
    b. The development from a Creole to a Pidgin
    c. The retreat from the use of a Creole to the use of a variety closer to the standard language
    d. A basic variety with more local Creole features

  36. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
    a. Idiolect is the personal dialect of each individual speaker of a language
    b. The use of special jargon is one of the key features of a register
    c. Diglossia is the term used to describe two different varieties of language co-existing in a speech community
    d. Diglossia makes the choice of appropriate linguistic forms more straightforward in all societies

PART 3. Text analysis questions based on "Language and Society" by William Downes, 0-2 points

In the questions you will be asked to make use of the dialogue below, which represents a simplified transcript of part of a radio call-in show about sports. The participants are hosts (H1) and (H2), both male, and a female call-in guest (G) with a question about snooker (a form of pool or billiards). All participants are in their mid-thirties.

[Huom! Liite (based on dialogue transcribed in Watts 2003: 7) on poistettu / OBS! Bilagan (based on dialogue transcribed in Watts 2003: 7) har tagits bort]

3.1. Multiple choice questions. Circle the correct answer. There is only one correct answer for each question.

  1. All of the following terms refer to kinds of language. Which one of these terms refers to the smallest or most restricted kind of language?
    A. lect
    B. dialect
    C. variety
    D. register

  2. On the basis of the data above, H1, H2, and G can be considered to
    A. be part of the same speech community
    B. have strong social ties to each other
    C. speak the same variety
    D. exhibit age-grading
    E. have the same demographics

  3. Among the speakers, there is a primary group (in Milroy's sense) consisting of
    A. H1, H2 and G
    B. H1 and G
    C. H1 and H2
    D. none of the above

  4. Which pair of clauses from the data above is not an example of an adjacency pair?
    A. hello / hello
    B. yes, I would like to ask ... / I would say right now ...
    C. tell them you've been on the programme ... / I shall do so then
    D. well, they're all lovely people / thank you very much indeed

  5. Using the data above, the -ing/-in variation in the speech of H1 and H2 can best be explained as
    A. free variation
    B. dialect mixing
    C. diachronic change in linguistic form
    D. phonological conditioning
    E. style shifting
    F. all of the above

  6. According to Downes, which one of the following is true of the -ing/-in variable in general?
    A. it varies with social class
    B. the -ing form has always higher prestige
    C. it varies freely
    D. it varies in all varieties of English

  7. In the data, Can I come back in now? has the force of a/an
    A. declarative
    B. interrogative
    C. imperative
    D. exclamative
    E. expletive

  8. G's use of tête-à-tête (French: private conversation) is best described by which one of the following terms?
    A. interference
    B. codeswitching
    C. language shift
    D. bilingualism
    E. diglossia

  9. According to Downes, which of the following is not a reason that women typically use more of RP and other prestige forms than men do?
    A. association with prestige forms enhances women's social 'face'
    B. use of 'correct speech' can be a strategic advantage in conversation
    C. women are assigned the responsibility of setting a good example for their children
    D. women have a system of secondary social markers that takes the place of occupational social markers for men
    E. women are exposed to wider variation and are less tied to local norms

  10. According to Downes, which of the following does not influence speakers' choice of variant forms of a single sociolinguistic variable (such as -ing/-in) in a given conversation?
    A. language norms taught in school
    B. language norms associated with various groups and their stereotypes
    C. statistical memory for how often each variant has been heard before
    D. phonological effects of words surrounding the variants
    E. choice of variants by the other persons in the same conversation

3.2. Short answer (0-0.50 each)

3.2.1. Downes describes the conditions and responses for several speech acts such as apologies and compliments. In the same way, we can say that part of G’s speech counts as scolding or telling off. Write one paragraph explaining why this is so, using evidence from the conversation. How do you interpret H1’s response?

3.2.2. Write one brief paragraph explaining how the 1.3-second silence can be interpreted as relevant to the conversation.

PART 4. Essay question and text analysis of “Regeneration” by Pat Barker, 0-3 points

Conscience and Duty in Pat Barker’s Regeneration

Based on your reading of Pat Barker’s Regeneration, answer the question below. Your essay should not exceed 400 words and should be written on this and the following blank pages of this booklet (use both sides of the sheets). Your essay should show a thorough knowledge of the text and an ability to provide a coherent argument in answering the question. You should support your argument with specific examples from the novel. The general clarity of your writing will be taken into consideration, though points are not specifically deducted for individual language errors.

Question: When Siegfried Sassoon arrives at Craiglockhart, Rivers finds himself thinking about the ethical dilemmas of treating his patients, particularly a case where a man had ‘refused to go on fighting on religious grounds’:

[HUOM! Liite on poistettu./ OBS! Bilagan har tagits bort]

Discuss the theme of duty in Barker’s novel, focusing on the conflict both for doctor and patient between individual conscience and the duty to one’s country.

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