As the name suggests these are the periods for the introduction of copper and bronze. But, even if copper was extensively mined especially during the later period, e.g. in Wadi Feynan, stone tools were still in use and important despite an early use of copper. Pottery was well fired and the settlements during the Calcolithic period had well built houses. In that period the way of life resembled the late Neolithic, but during the Early Bronze Age (5500/5400 - 2200 years ago ; divided into periods I, II and III) archaeologists have revealed the first traces of urbanism. During the Early Bronze Age there is the first rise of city-states. During this period there is also clear contacts with the Egyptian dynasties shown by Egyptian pottery found in many settlements. In the Middle Bronze Age I (approx. 2200 - 1950 years ago) the city-state collapsed because of attacking nomads. The time from the Middle Bronze Age onward belongs also to the interest of biblical research. (The Biblical site of Kinneret in Israel)
In the Greater Petra Area there are reports of Early Bronze Age sites found in surveys conducted by German archaeologists. One published settlement has been found in the Es-Sadeh valley located about 14 km south of Petra. Otherwise no extensive excavations or research have been conducted on these sites in the Petra Area.
Early History of the Petra Area - The Iron Age
Early History of the Petra Area - Introduction
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