Research Fields


Graduate Schools


Contact Information

Division of Biogeoscience
Division of Geology and Geochemistry
Division of Urban Geograpahy and Regional Studies
Study Office

P.O. Box 64
(Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a)
FI-00014 University of Helsinki

Department Office
Institute of Seismology

P.O. Box 68
(Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2b)
FI-00014 University of Helsinki

phone +358 294 1911 (university exchange)
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Laboratories and Facilities


Photo: Pasi Heikkilää

Mineralogical laboratories include electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) laboratory, X-ray laboratory, fluid inclusion laboratory, and a variety of sample preparation facilities.


Electron probe microanalyzer or "microprobe" is designed for non-destructive micrometer-sized spot quantitative chemical analysis from polished mineral sample surfaces. We are running a completely modernized Jeol JXA-8600 superprobe equipped with four wavelength dispersive X-ray detectors (WDS) and one energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS).

A microprobe contain an electron gun that accelerates free electrons to high monochromatic kinetic energy of 5-50 keV. Electromagnetic lenses are used to focus the electron beam to a micrometer-sized spot on the sample surface. The interaction of electrons with target material produces X-rays that possess an energy spectrum that is characteristic for the elemental composition of the target. By measuring both the energy and intensity of the awaken X-rays, the chemical composition of the target can be calculated via specific correction factors and mineral calibration standards of known composition.

The electron beam can also be controlled in scan mode in similar fashion to a standard scanning electron microscope (SEM). Secondary electron (SE) and back scattered electron (BSE) detectors can be used to electron image the sample surface. In addition, the X-ray detectors can collect data in slow scan mode to acquire chemical composition maps from the sample surface.

Analysis detector and sample stage control electronics of this instrument were switched to PointElectronic SAMx hardware and Diss5/IDFix software in 2009. In addition, the whole electron gun control unit of the original instrument was replaced with PointElectronic digital control in spring 2013.

Things to be done prior to contacting the laboratory

Contact information: Radoslaw Michallik, Pasi Heikkilä



XRD Philips PW3710 PW3020, X-ray powder diffractometer

XRF Philips PW1480 WD-XRF, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive spectrometer

WD-XRF is calibrated using Li-borate beads of internationally certified reference material (CRM) rock powders. A routine analysis series includes the following major components (wt. %): SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O ja P2O5, and the following minor and trace elements (ppm): Ba, Ce, Cr, Cu, Co, Ga, La, Nb, Ni, Rb, Sr, U, V, Y, Zn, and Zr.

FT-IR Perkin Elmer Spectrum One IR Fourier transform infrared spectrometer

Contact information: Pasi Heikkilä, Tuija Vaahtojärvi


Contact information: Matti Poutiainen, Thomas Wagner


Thin sections, polished thin sections, fluid inclusion thick sections, and sample mounts in epoxy

Contact information: Helena Korkka


Hydraulic press, jaw crusher, wolfram carbide ball mill, Claisse M4 fluxer

Contact information: Pasi Heikkilä


Grain size analysis Malvern Mastersizer 2000 Grain size distribution of suspended sediment within the grain size range of 2-2000 µm. Contact information: Seija Kultti