The ELFA project

L1s represented in the WrELFA corpus

The WrELFA corpus includes more than 500 unique authors representing at least 37 first languages. The 17 most-represented L1 categories (i.e. those with at least 10,000 words) make up 95% of words in the corpus and are listed below. These figures include the large group of unidentified commenters on research blogs.

author L1 words %
Finnish 210 328 14%
Czech 148 880 10%
English 115 472 8%
French 112 568 7%
Spanish 111 636 7%
Italian 107 739 7%
Swedish 94 632 6%
Chinese 90 916 6%
(blog commenters) 85 666 6%
Russian 82 120 5%
Dutch 64 174 4%
German 62 774 4%
Portuguese (Brazil) 62 048 4%
Romanian 32 985 2%
Norwegian 30 830 2%
Bengali 23 957 2%
Danish 14 145 1%
1 450 870 95%
other L1s: 82 458 5%
corpus total: 1 533 328 100%

The "other L1" category above includes bi-/multilingual authors as well as the following first languages:

  • Afrikaans
  • Arabic
  • Cantonese
  • Estonian
  • Filipino
  • Flemish
  • Georgian
  • Greek
  • Hebrew
  • Hindi
  • Hungarian
  • Japanese
  • Marathi
  • Neo-Aramaic
  • Polish
  • Serbian
  • Serbo-Croatian
  • Tamil
  • Turkish
  • Urdu
  • Vietnamese

News

  • For research blogging on ELF, see the ELFA project blog.
  • Anna Mauranen has published a chapter on academic ELF in New Frontiers in Teaching and Learning English, edited by Paola Vettorel (Cambridge Scholars).
  • An intensive course on ELF is offered by researchers from the ELFA project in the Helsinki Summer School, Aug. 4–20, 2015. For description of the course, see the ELFA blog.
  • Niina Hynninen has published an article in the Journal of English as a Lingua Franca 3(2) entitled "The Common European Framework of Reference from the perspective of English as a lingua franca: What we can learn from a focus on language regulation".
  • Svetlana Vetchinnikova has defended her PhD thesis, Second language lexis and the idiom principle. Read the abstract and download the full text from Helsinki's E-thesis service.
  • Maria Kuteeva & Anna Mauranen have edited a special issue of the Journal of English for Academic Purposes 13: Writing for publication in multilingual contexts. Find their introduction here.
  • Kaisa Pietikäinen has published an article entitled ELF couples and automatic code-switching in the Journal of English as a Lingua Franca 3(1).