Technology-mediated Processes of Learning and Collective-creativity

Professor Kai Hakkarainen

Ritva Engeström
Kari Kosonen
Jiri Lallimo
Hanni Muukkonen
Sami Paavola
Pasi Pohjola
Seppo Toikka
Jenna Tuomainen

The group studies personal and collective processes and technology-mediated practices of creating new knowledge, learning, making innovations, and transforming practices. The view is extended to semiotic processes, and subjective mechanisms allowing for individual participation in collective activities.  The group relies on a research history cultivated across 15 years within frames of Centre for Research on Networked Learning and Knowledge Building. The group functions at multiple domains of learning from elementary-level education to doctoral training, from schools to professional communities and networks, and research institutions.

Investigations of the group are focused on analyzing and examining processes, structures and practices that allow social communities and networks, and participating individuals, to engage in productive pursuit of new knowledge and transforming their epistemic practices. The group examines creativity and collaborative knowledge-creation as an object-oriented (“trialogical”) process; where the objects being developed can be problems and theories, ideas and concepts, prototypes and materially embodied artifacts, projects or practices being subject to development and transformation. Creativity is analyzed as sustained and long-standing work with evolving networks combining mediating objects, practices, and persons. The group has for long examined and analyzed various inquiry models (i.e. progressive inquiry, ”tutkiva oppiminen” in Finnish”) that may be used to facilitate creative working with knowledge from elementary to higher-education levels and workplace. This is closely connected to research and development projects on “epistemic technologies” supporting sustained work with spatially, physically and temporally distributed epistemic objects.
The group also aims at developing methodological approaches for making research on networks, knowledge practices, collective creativity, and collaborative learning. The methods used include, i.e.:

  • observational and ethnographic investigations;
  • social network analyses (SNA);
  • contextual event sampling (experience-sampling method and its derivatives, repeated sampling of activity processes across contexts);
  • psychometrically well-founded self-report-questionnaires;
  • thinking-aloud protocols;
  • videotaped interaction analyses;
  • the methods of stimulated recall;
  • longitudinal analyses of developmental processes.


Engeström, R. & Virkkunen, J. (Toim.). Kulttuurinen välittyneisyys oppimisessa ja toiminnassa. Toiminnan teorian ja kehittävän työntutkimuksen yksikkö, Tutkimusraportteja 11, Helsinki.

Hakkarainen, K. (2009). Three generations of research on technology-enhanced learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40, 879-888.

Hakkarainen, K. (2009). A knowledge-practice perspective on technology-mediated learning. International Journal of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning, 4, 213-231.

Hakkarainen, K., Lonka, K., & Lipponen, L. (2004). Tutkiva oppiminen: Järki, tunteet ja kulttuuri oppimisen sytyttäjinä. 6. uudistettu painos. Porvoo: WSOY.

Hakkarainen, K., Palonen, T., Paavola, S., & Lehtinen, E. (2004). Communities of networked expertise: Professional and educational perspectives. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Hakkarainen, K., Lallimo, J., Toikka, S., & White, H. (in press). Cultivating collective expertise within innovative knowledge-practice networks. In S. Ludvigsen, A. Lund, & R. Säljö, R (Eds.), Learning in social practices. ICT and new artifacts - transformation of social and cultural practices. EARLI series: Advances in Learning. Pergamon.

Kosonen, K., Lakkala, M., & Hakkarainen, K. (in press). Guiding a blind reader’s strategic questioning in processing expository texts. Yearbook of Idiographic Science.

Lallimo, J., Muukonen, H., Lipponen, L., & Hakkarainen, K. (2007). Trialogical knowledge construction: The use of boundary object in multiprofessional negotiation. In H. Gruber & T. Palonen (Eds.), Learning in the workplace: New developments (pp. 157-184). Research in Educational Sciences 32. Finnish Educational Research Association.

Muukkonen, H., Inkinen, M., Kosonen, K., Hakkarainen, K., Vesikivi, P., Lachmann, H., & Karlgren, K. (in press). Research on knowledge practices with the Contextual Activity Sampling System. In C. O'Malley, D. Suthers, P. Reimann, & A. Dimitracopoulou (Eds.), Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Practices: CSCL2009 Conference Proceedings. (pp. 385-394). Rhodes, Creek: International Society of the Learning Sciences (ISLS). Draft - available online.

Muukkonen, H., Lakkala, M., & Hakkarainen, K. (2005). Technology-mediation and tutoring: how do they shape progressive inquiry discourse? The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 14(4), 527–565.

Paavola, S. (2007) Abductive Logic of Discovery with Distributed Means. In Olga Pombo & Alexander Gerner (eds.) Abduction and the Process of Scientific Discovery (pp. 47-62). Colecção Documenta, Centro de Filosofia das Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa. Draft - available online.

Paavola, S. & Hakkarainen, K. (2009). From meaning making to joint construction of knowledge practices and artefacts – A trialogical approach to CSCL. In C. O'Malley, D. Suthers, P. Reimann, & A. Dimitracopoulou (Eds.), Computer supported collaborative learning Practices: CSCL2009 conference Proceedings (pp. 83-92). Rhodes, Creek: International Society of the Learning Sciences (ISLS). Draft - available online.

Pohjola, P. (2009) Technical Things: An essay on the social constitution of technical artefacts. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.

Toikka, S. (2007). ICT Supported Interorganizational Knowledge-Creation: Application of Change Laboratory. In Duval, E., Klamma, R., Wolpers, M. (Eds.), Creating New Learning Experiences on a Global Scale. Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (pp. 337-348). Berlin, Germany: Springer.  Available online..

Recent Publications

  • Kaatrakoski, H., Littlejohn, A. & Hood, N. Learning challenges in higher education: an analysis of contradictions within open educational practice. High Educ (2016). doi:10.1007/s10734-016-0067-z Publication>>

  • Kaatrakoski, H., & Lahikainen, J., "What We Do Every Day Is Impossible": Managing Change by Developing a Knotworking Culture in an Academic Library, The Journal of Academic Librarianship (2016), Publication>>

  • Kajamaa, A. & Lahtinen, P. (2016). Carnivalization as a new mode of collaboration. Journal of Workplace Learning, Vol. 28 Iss 4 pp. 188 - 205. DOI Publication>>

  • Sannino,A., Engeström, Y. & Lemos, M. (2016). Formative Interventions for Expansive Learning and Transformative Agency, Journal of the Learning
    DOI: 10.1080/10508406.2016.1204547 Publication>>
  • Sannino, A., Engeström Y. & Lahikainen, J. (2016). The dialectics of authoring expansive learning: tracing the long tail of a Change Laboratory. Journal of Workplace Learning, Vol. 28 Iss 4 pp. 245 - 26 Publication>>
  • Engeström, Y. & Sannino, A. (2016). Expansive learning on the move: insights from ongoing research / El aprendizaje expansivo en movimiento: aportaciones de la investigación en curs. Journal for the Study of Education and Development/ Infancia y Aprendizaje Publication >>
  • Rantavuori, J., Engeström, Y., & Lipponen, L. (2016). Learning actions, objects and types of interaction: A methodological analysis of expansive learning among pre-service teachers. Frontline Learning Research, 4(3), 1-27. Publication >>
  • Korpela, J., Miettinen, R., Salmikivi , T., & Ihalainen, J. 2015. The challenges and potentials of utilizing building information modeling in facility management. The case of the Center for Property and facilities of the University of Helsinki. Construction Management and Economies 33(1), 3-17. Publication >>
  • Kerosuo, H., Miettinen, R., Paavola, S., Mäki, T. & Korpela, J. 2015. Challenges of the expansive use of Building Information Modeling in construction projects. Production 25(2), 289-297.Publication >>
  • Miettinen, R., Tuunainen, J. & E.   Esko (2015).  Epistemological, Artefactual and Interactional–Institutional Foundations of Social Impact of Academic Research. Minerva 53(3), 257-277 Publication >>
  • Sannino, A. (2015). The principle of double stimulation: A path to volitional action. Learning, Culture, and Social Interaction, 6, 1-15. Publication >>
  • Sannino, A. (2015). Double stimulation in the waiting experiment with collectives. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science. DOI: 10.1007/s12124-015-9324-4 Publication >>
  • Sannino, A. & Vainio, J. (2015). Gendered hegemony and its contradictions among Finnish university physicists. Gender and Education. DOI:10.1080/09540253.2015.1045455 Publication >>
  • Kerosuo H., Miettinen, R., Paavola S., & Mäki T., (2015). Challenges of the expansive1 use of Building ­Information Modeling (BIM) in construction projects. Production Journal, vol.25, n.2, p.289-297, 2015 Publication >>
  • Engeström Y., Kajamaa A., Lahtinen P. & Sannino A. (2015). Toward a Grammar of Collaboration, Mind, Culture, and Activity, 22:2, 92-111, DOI:10.1080/10749039.2015.1024326 Publication >>
  • Schulz, K-P., Kajamaa, A. & Kerosuo, H. (2015). Creating innovative work practices through reflexive interventions. International Journal of Work Innovation 1 (2): 143 - 160. DOI: 10.1504/IJWI.2015.071193 Publication >>
  • Seppänen, L. (2015). Review of 'Collaborative projects: an interdisciplinary study'. Book edited by Andy Blunden. Outlines - Critical Practice Studies, 16(1), 93-97. Publication >>
  • Vänninen I., Pereira-Querol M., Engeström Y. (2015). Generating transformative agency among horticultural producers: An activity-theoretical approach to transforming Integrated Pest Management Original Research Article. Agricultural Systems, Volume 139, October 2015, Pages 38-49 Publication >>
  • Kerosuo, H. (2015). BIM-based collaboration across organizational and disciplinary boundaries through knotworking. 8th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization. Procedia Economics and Finance, 21, 201-208.Publication >>
  • Mäki, T. (2015) Multi-disciplinary discourse on design-related issues in construction site meetings. 8th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization. Procedia Economics and Finance, 21, 231-238. Publication >>
  • Mäki, T. and Kerosuo, H. (2015) Site managers' daily work and the uses of building information modelling in construction site. Construction Management and Economics, published on line 5 May, 2015. Publication >>

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