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Kikimora Publications Series B27


Finnish Communism under Soviet Totalitarianism: Oppositions within the Finnish Communist Party in Soviet Russia 1918-1935
by Jukka Paastela

Kikimora Publications : Series B27. 2003
ISBN 952-10-0755-9
5 EUR + VAT 10 %
360 p.

This work studies the emigrant policies amongst the leaders of the Finnish Communist Party in Soviet Russia at the time when the Party was illegal in Finland. In the Party there were a number of oppositions. The most famous of them was the 'Murder Opposition', which killed Finnish Communists in Petrograd in 1920. Another was a semi-criminal gang that manufactured fake Finnish money.

One opposition, led by Otto Wille Kuusinen in 1919-1921, aimed at liquidation of the emigrant-led Party altogether. The last opposition, led by Hanna Malm and Kullervo Manner, proclaimed in self-flagellating way that the Finnish revolutionary leaders, including Manner himself, 'betrayed' the workers in the revolution of 1918.

Theory of totalitarianism forms a starting-point to the analysis. Most important explanatory factor is, however, the emigration itself. Emigration produces easily sectarian political quarrels and the combination of these two, totalitarian and emigration circumastances made it difficult for the Finnish Communists to adjust in the Soviet Society.


I Introduction
1. The Purpose of This Study
2. On Sources and Former Studies

II Totalitarianism and Communism
1. Arendt and Associates on Totalitarianism
2. The Communist Party

III Rebellion, Revolution and Civil War in Finland
1. The Finnish Workers' Movement 1899-1917
2. The Preconditions of Revolution and the Finnish Situation in 1917
3. The General Strike of november 1917
4. The Rebellion
5. After the Civil War
6. How to Explain Revolution - and Communism

IV "Proletarian" Oppositions within the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) 1918-1923
1. Democratic Centralists
2. Workers' Opposition
3. Workers' Truth and Workers' Group

V Dramatis personae
1. The Kuusinen Opposition/Group
2. The Murder Opposition
3. The Rahja Opposition
4. The Malm and Manner Opposition

VI Time Scale of Oppositions and PersonsVI The Murder Opposition (1920-1923)
1. Ultraleftism in the Finnish Communist Party, 1918-1921
2. The Military and Corruption
3. The Opposition becomes the Murder Opposition
4. Crime and Punishment

VII The Kuusinen Opposition (1919-1921)
1. The Formation of the Kuusinen Opposition
2. Kuusinen "Boils in the Bolshevik Pot"
3. The 1921 Congress of the SKP
4. Excursion: Kuusinen (and Others) and the Russians

VIII The Rahja Opposition (1921-1927)
1. Corruption and Fabrication of Money
2. Was "Rahjaism" a kind of Worker's Opposition?
3. Factional Struggles in the 1925 Congress and after

IX The Malm and Manner Opposition (1928-1935)
1. The Unfolding of Enmities (1928-1931)
2. The Florescence of Hostilities (1931-1935)

X Conclusion: the Finnish "Congress of Victors" (1935