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Gritsenko, Daria

Governance of Shipping Externalities in the Baltic Sea Region and Russia

In the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) negative contributions of maritime transport to the vulnerable status of marine environment is widely acknowledged in political, environmental and industry arenas. The designation of the BSR to PSSA (particularly sensitive sea area), ECA (emission control area), as well as HELCOMs activism to promote harmonization of environmental norms and standards and cooperation in pollution control and prevention all contribute to the development and consolidation of regional maritime governance system. Whereas the European Union’s contribution to Baltic maritime governance has been widely elaborated, the case of Russia remains less explored. In the recent decade the modernization of Russian fleet, ports and maritime infrastructure have all contributed to improved quality of maritime transportation on the Russian Baltic routes. The aim of this paper is to shed light upon the governance of shipping externalities in the BSR and the position of Russia in it. Using the interactive governance approach, this paper will explore the cases of oil transport intensification and sulfur emission reduction in the BSR as multi-stakeholder interaction processes which modify old and create new institutions for shipping governance. The contribution pays particular attention to the intersection of shipping and energy arenas, claiming that shipping externalities governance is nested in the wider patterns of Baltic energy relations. Eventually, the paper clarifies how the ‘rules of the game’, embedded in multiple (and often conflicted) context, shaped the patterns of shipping externalities governance in the case of Russia.